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Host Resistance Assays

  • Stefanie C. M. Burleson
  • Wendy Jo Freebern
  • Florence G. Burleson
  • Gary R. Burleson
  • Victor J. Johnson
  • Robert W. Luebke
Protocol
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1803)

Abstract

The goal of immunotoxicity testing is to obtain data useful for immunotoxicity safety assessment. Guidance in the performance of immunotoxicity safety evaluations is provided in documents from the US EPA for chemicals and the ICH S8 document for pharmaceuticals. The ICH S8 document outlines a tiered approach that includes (1) standard toxicity studies with associated hematology, immune system organ weights, and histopathology data; (2) functional assays, such as cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) assays, natural killer (NK) cell assays, respiratory burst, phagocytosis, and T-cell-dependent antibody response (TDAR) assays; and (3) host resistance assays. Host resistance assays are considered the gold standard in immunotoxicity testing and provide a critical overview of the extent to which innate, adaptive, and homeostatic regulatory immune functions are integrated to protect the host. Both comprehensive and targeted host resistance assays are available, each with distinct advantages. This chapter serves to provide a general overview of the various assays that may be used, as well as a summary of procedures.

Key words

Host resistance Immunotoxicity Immunosuppression Susceptibility to infection Viral infections Latent viral infections Bacterial infections Parasite infections 

Abbreviations

ABSL

Animal biosafety level

ADCC

Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity

BSL

Biosafety level

CD4+

Thymus-derived lymphocyte bearing the CD4 antigen

CD8+

Thymus-derived lymphocyte bearing the CD8 antigen

CMV

Cytomegalovirus

CSP

Circumsporozoite protein

CTL

Cytotoxic T lymphocyte

DC

Dendritic cell

EBV

Epstein-Barr virus

ELISA

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

ICH

International Council for Harmonisation (formerly the International Conference on Harmonisation)

IFNγ

Interferon gamma

IgA

Immunoglobulin A

IgE

Immunoglobulin E

IgG

Immunoglobulin G

IgM

Immunoglobulin M

IL-1

Interleukin-1

IL-10

Interleukin-10

IL-4

Interleukin-4

KLH

Keyhole limpet hemocyanin

LCV

Lymphocryptovirus

mAb

Monoclonal antibody

MCMV

Murine cytomegalovirus

MDCK

Madin-Darby canine kidney

MHC I

Major histocompatibility class I

MMTV

Mouse mammary tumor virus

MRSA

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

MyD88

Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88

MZB cell

Marginal zone B cell

Macrophage

NK cell

Natural killer cell

Py17XL

Nonlethal strain of Py

Pb

P. berghei

Pc

P. chabaudi

PFU

Plaque forming units

pRBC cells

Parasitized red blood cells

Py

P. yoelii

Py17XL

Lethal strain of Py

RBC

Red blood cell

RE

Rapid expulsion

RRV

Rhesus rhadinovirus

SCID

Severe combined immunodeficiency disease

STAT6

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 6

SV40

Simian virus 40

Syk

Splenic tyrosine kinase

TBTO

Tributyltin oxide

TDAR

T-cell-dependent antibody response

TGFβ

Transforming growth factor beta

Th1

T-helper 1 cell

Th2

T-helper 2 cell

TIAR

T-cell-independent antibody response

TLR

Toll-like receptor

TNFα

Tumor necrosis factor alpha

Ts

T. spiralis

Notes

Disclaimer

This report has been reviewed by the Environmental Protection Agency’s Office of Research and Development and approved for publication. Approval does not signify that the contents reflect the views of the Agency.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stefanie C. M. Burleson
    • 1
  • Wendy Jo Freebern
    • 2
  • Florence G. Burleson
    • 1
  • Gary R. Burleson
    • 1
  • Victor J. Johnson
    • 1
  • Robert W. Luebke
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Burleson Research Technologies, Inc. (BRT)MorrisvilleUSA
  2. 2.Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, ImmunotoxicologyNew BrunswickUSA
  3. 3.United States Environmental Protection Agency, Cardiopulmonary and Immunotoxicology Branch, Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Laboratory, Office of Research and DevelopmentResearch Triangle ParkUSA
  4. 4.Burleson Research Technologies, Inc.MorrisvilleUSA

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