HLA Typing pp 49-62 | Cite as

Allele Frequency Net Database

  • Faviel F. Gonzalez-GalarzaEmail author
  • Antony McCabe
  • Eduardo J. Melo dos Santos
  • Louise Takeshita
  • Gurpreet Ghattaoraya
  • Andrew R. Jones
  • Derek Middleton
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1802)


The allele frequency net database (AFND, is an online web-based repository that contains information on the frequencies of immune-related genes and their corresponding alleles in worldwide human populations. At present, the system contains data from 1505 populations in more than ten million individuals on the frequency of genes from different polymorphic regions including data for the human leukocyte antigens (HLA) system. This resource has been widely used in a variety of contexts such as histocompatibility, immunology, epidemiology, pharmacogenetics, and population genetics, among many others. In this chapter, we present some of the more commonly used searching mechanisms and some of the most recent developments included in AFND.


HLA Polymorphisms Frequencies Immunogenetics Population genetics 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Faviel F. Gonzalez-Galarza
    • 1
    Email author
  • Antony McCabe
    • 2
  • Eduardo J. Melo dos Santos
    • 3
  • Louise Takeshita
    • 2
  • Gurpreet Ghattaoraya
    • 2
  • Andrew R. Jones
    • 2
  • Derek Middleton
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Molecular Immunobiology, Faculty of Medicine, Centre for Biomedical ResearchAutonomous University of CoahuilaTorreón, CoahuilaMexico
  2. 2.Institute of Integrative BiologyUniversity of LiverpoolLiverpoolUK
  3. 3.Human and Medical Genetics, Institute of Biological SciencesFederal University of ParaBelémBrazil
  4. 4.Transplant Immunology LaboratoryRoyal Liverpool and Broadgreen University HospitalLiverpoolUK
  5. 5.Institute of Infection and Global HealthUniversity of LiverpoolLiverpoolUK

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