Skip to main content

The Vaccination Model in Psychoneuroimmunology Research: A Review

Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB,volume 1781)

Abstract

This chapter explores the reasoning behind using the vaccination model to examine the influence of psychosocial factors on immunity. It then briefly discusses the mechanics of the vaccination response and the protocols used in psychoneuroimmunology vaccine research, before giving examples from the research literature of the studies examining relationships such as the association between stress and vaccination response. It also explores the ways the vaccination model can be used to answer key questions in psychoneuroimmunology, such as the following: “Does it matter when stressful life events occur relative to when the vaccine is received?” “What are the effects of prior exposure to the antigen?” “Do other psychosocial factors influence vaccine response besides stress?” Finally, it briefly considers the mechanisms underlying psychosocial factors and vaccination response associations and the future research needed to understand these better, and indeed to use current and future knowledge to improve and enhance vaccine responses in key at-risk populations.

Key words

  • Caregiving
  • Influenza
  • Interventions
  • Social support
  • Stress
  • Vaccine

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Protocol
USD   49.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-7828-1_16
  • Chapter length: 18 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   119.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-1-4939-7828-1
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   159.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   249.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)

Springer Nature is developing a new tool to find and evaluate Protocols. Learn more

References

  1. McKinnon W, Weisse CS, Reynolds CP et al (1989) Chronic stress, leukocyte subpopulations, and humoral response to latent viruses. Health Psychol 8:389–402

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Schaeffer MA, Baum A, Reynolds CF et al (1985) Immune status as a function of chronic stress at Three Mile Island. Psychosom Med 47:85

    Google Scholar 

  3. Futterman AD, Wellisch DK, Zighelboim J et al (1996) Psychological and immunological reactions of family members to patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation. Psychosom Med 58:472–480

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Glaser R, Shuttleworth EC et al (1987) Chronic stress and immunity in family caregivers of Alzheimer’s disease victims. Psychosom Med 49:523–535

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. De Gucht V, Fischler B, Demanet C (1999) Immune dysfunction associated with chronic professional stress in nurses. Psychiatry Res 85:105–111

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Deinzer R, Kleineidam C, Stiller-Winkler R et al (2000) Prolonged reduction of salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA) after a major academic exam. Int J Psychophysiol 37:219–232

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Jemmott JB 3rd, Borysenko JZ, Borysenko M et al (1983) Academic stress, power motivation, and decrease in secretion rate of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A. Lancet 1:1400–1402

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Jemmott JB 3rd, Magloire K (1988) Academic stress, social support, and secretory immunoglobulin A. J Pers Soc Psychol 55:803–810

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. McClelland DC, Alexander C, Marks E (1982) The need for power, stress, immune function, and illness among male prisoners. J Abnorm Psychol 91:61–70

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Gallagher S, Phillips AC, Evans P et al (2008) Caregiving is associated with low secretion rates of immunoglobulin A in saliva. Brain Behav Immun 22:565–572. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2007.11.007

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Vedhara K, Fox JD, Wang ECY (1999) The measurement of stress-related immune dysfunction in psychoneuroimmunology. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 23:699–715

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Bartrop RW, Luckhurst E, Lazarus L et al (1977) Depressed lymphocyte function after bereavement. Lancet 1:834–836

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Esterling BA, Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Glaser R (1996) Psychosocial modulation of cytokine-induced natural killer cell activity in older adults. Psychosom Med 58:264–272

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Irwin M, Patterson T, Smith TL et al (1990) Reduction of immune function in life stress and depression. Biol Psychiatry 27:22–30

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. Schleifer SJ, Keller SE, Camerino M et al (1983) Suppression of lymphocyte stimulation following bereavement. JAMA 250:374–377

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Arnetz BB, Wasserman J, Petrini B et al (1987) Immune function in unemployed women. Psychosom Med 49:3–12

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. Khanfer R, Lord JM, Phillips AC (2011) Neutrophil function and cortisol:DHEAS ratio in bereaved older adults. Brain Behav Immun 25(6):1182–1186. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2011.03.008

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. Burns VE, Carroll D, Ring C et al (2003) Antibody response to vaccination and psychosocial stress in humans: relationship and mechanisms. Vaccine 21:2523–2534

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. Allsup S, Haycox A, Regan M et al (2004) Is influenza vaccination cost effective for healthy people between ages 65 and 74 years? A randomised controlled trial. Vaccine 23:639–645

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. Patriarca PA (1994) Editorial: A randomized controlled trial of influenza vaccine in the elderly: Scientific scrutiny and ethical responsibility. JAMA 272:1700–1701

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. Goodwin K, Viboud C, Simonsen L (2006) Antibody response to influenza vaccination in the elderly: a quantitative review. Vaccine 24:1159–1169. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2005.08.105

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. Nichol KL, Margolis KL, Wuorenma J et al (1994) The efficacy and cost effectiveness of vaccination against influenza among elderly persons living in the community. N Engl J Med 331:778–784

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. Simonsen L, Reichert TA, Viboud C et al (2005) Impact of influenza vaccination on seasonal mortality in the US elderly population. Arch Intern Med 165:265–272

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. Brown GW, Harris TO (1989) Social origins of depression: a study of psychiatric disorder in women. Routledge, London

    Google Scholar 

  25. Cohen S, Tyrell DAJ, Smith AP (1991) Psychological stress and susceptibility to the common cold. N Engl J Med 325:606–612

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. Rosengren A, Orth-Gomer K, Wedel H et al (1993) Stressful life events, social support, and mortality in men born in 1933. BMJ 307:1102–1105

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  27. Cohen S, Kamarck T, Mermelstein R (1983) A global measure of perceived stress. J Health Soc Behav 24:385–396. https://doi.org/10.2307/2136404

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Macleod J, Davey Smith G, Heslop P et al (2002) Psychological stress and cardiovascular disease: empirical demonstration of bias in a prospective observational study of Scottish men. BMJ 324:1247–1251

    CrossRef  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  29. Schulz R, Beach SR (1999) Caregiving as a risk factor for mortality: the Caregiver Health Effects Study. JAMA 282:2215–2219

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. Moynihan JA, Larson MR, Treanor J et al (2004) Psychosocial factors and the response to influenza vaccination in older adults. Psychosom Med 66:950–953

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. Burns VE, Carroll D, Ring C et al (2002) Stress, coping and hepatitis B antibody status. Psychosom Med 64:287–293

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  32. Burns VE, Drayson M, Ring C et al (2002) Perceived stress and psychological well-being are associated with antibody status following meningitis C conjugate vaccination. Psychosom Med 64:963–970

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. Pedersen AF, Zachariae R, Bovbjerg DH (2009) Psychological stress and antibody response to influenza vaccination: a meta-analysis. Brain Behav Immun 23:427–433. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2009.01.004

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  34. Gulati U, Keitel WA, Air GM (2007) Increased antibodies against unfolded viral antigens in the elderly after influenza vaccination. Influenza Other Respi Viruses 1:147–156. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-2659.2007.00017.x

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  35. Burns VE, Carroll D, Drayson M et al (2003) Life events, perceived stress and antibody response to influenza vaccination in young healthy adults. J Psychosom Res 55:569–572

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  36. Phillips AC, Burns VE, Carroll D et al (2005) The association between life events, social support and antibody status following thymus-dependent and thymus-independent vaccinations in healthy young adults. Brain Behav Immun 19:325–333

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  37. Miller GE, Cohen S, Pressman S et al (2004) Psychological stress and antibody response to influenza vaccination: when is the critical period for stress, and how does it get inside the body? Psychosom Med 66:215–223

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  38. Phillips AC, Carroll D, Bums VE et al (2006) Bereavement and marriage are associated with antibody response to influenza vaccination in the elderly. Brain Behav Immun 20:279–289. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2005.08.003

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  39. Talbot HK, Coleman LA, Zhu Y et al (2015) Factors associated with maintenance of antibody responses to influenza vaccine in older, community-dwelling adults. BMC Infect Dis 15:195. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-015-0926-8

    CrossRef  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  40. Glaser R, Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Bonneau RH et al (1992) Stress-induced modulation of the immune response to recombinant hepatitis B vaccine. Psychosom Med 54:22–29

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  41. Glaser R, Sheridan JF, Malarkey W et al (2000) Chronic stress modulates the immune response to a pneumococcal pneumonia vaccine. Psychosom Med 62:804–807

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  42. Vedhara K, Cox NK, Wilcock GK et al (1999) Chronic stress in elderly carers of dementia patients and antibody response to influenza vaccination. Lancet 353:627–631

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  43. Segerstrom SC, Schipper LJ, Greenberg RN (2008) Caregiving, repetitive thought, and immune response to vaccination in older adults. Brain Behav Immun 22:744–752. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2007.11.004

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  44. Wong SY, Wong CK, Chan FW et al (2013) Chronic psychosocial stress: does it modulate immunity to the influenza vaccine in Hong Kong Chinese elderly caregivers? Age (Dordr) 35:1479–1493. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11357-012-9449-z

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  45. Vedhara K, McDermott MP, Evans TG et al (2002) Chronic stress in non-elderly caregivers: psychological, endocrine and immune implications. J Psychosom Res 53:1153–1161

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  46. Graham JE, Christian LM, Kiecolt-Glaser JK (2006) Stress, age, and immune function: toward a lifespan approach. J Behav Med 29:389–400

    CrossRef  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  47. Keegan BM, Noseworthy JH (2002) Multiple sclerosis. Annu Rev Med 53:285–302. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.med.53.082901.10390953/1/285

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  48. Poser CM, Paty DW, Scheinberg L et al (1983) New diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: guidelines for research protocols. Ann Neurol 13:227–231. https://doi.org/10.1002/ana.410130302

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  49. Gregory CA, Hodges JR (1996) Clinical features of frontal lobe dementia in comparison to Alzheimer’s disease. J Neural Transm Suppl 47:103–123

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  50. Neary D, Snowden JS, Gustafson L et al (1998) Frontotemporal lobar degeneration: a consensus on clinical diagnostic criteria. Neurology 51:1546–1554

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  51. Pinquart M, Sorensen S (2003) Associations of stressors and uplifts of caregiving with caregiver burden and depressive mood: a meta-analysis. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 58:P112–P128

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  52. Pinquart M, Sorensen S (2003) Differences between caregivers and noncaregivers in psychological health and physical health: a meta-analysis. Psychol Aging 18:250–267. https://doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.18.2.250

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  53. Floyd FJ, Gallagher EM (1997) Parental stress, care demands, and use of support services for school-age children with disabilities and behavior problems. Fam Relat 46:359–371

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  54. Hastings RP, Daley D, Burns C et al (2006) Maternal distress and expressed emotion: cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships with behavior problems of children with intellectual disabilities. Am J Mental Retard 111:48–61

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  55. Higgins DJ, Bailey SR, Pearce JC (2005) Factors associated with functioning style and coping strategies of families with a child with an autism spectrum disorder. Autism 9:125–137

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  56. Maes B, Broekman TG, Dosen A et al (2003) Caregiving burden of families looking after persons with intellectual disability and behavioural or psychiatric problems. J Intellect Disabil Res 47:447–455

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  57. Gallagher S, Phillips AC, Drayson MT et al (2009) Parental caregivers of children with developmental disabilities mount a poor antibody response to pneumococcal vaccination. Brain Behav Immun 23:338–346. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2008.05.006

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  58. Gallagher S, Phillips AC, Drayson MT et al (2009) Caregiving for children with developmental disabilities is associated with a poor antibody response to influenza vaccination. Psychosom Med 71:341–344. https://doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0b013e31819d1910

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  59. Jabaaij L, Grosheide PM, Heijtink RA et al (1993) Influence of perceived psychological stress and distress on antibody response to low dose rDNA hepatitis B vaccine. J Psychosom Res 37:361–369

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  60. Jabaaij L, Van Hattum J, Vingerhoets AJJM et al (1996) Modulation of immune response to rDNA hepatitis B vaccination by psychological stress. J Psychosom Res 41:129–137

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  61. Marsland AL, Cohen S, Rabin BS et al (2001) Associations between stress, trait negative affect, acute immune reactivity, and antibody response to hepatitis B injection in healthy young adults. Health Psychol 20:4–11

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  62. Petry J, Weems LB, Livingstone JNI (1991) Relationship of stress, distress, and the immunologic response to a recombinant hepatitis B vaccine. J Fam Pract 32:481–486

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  63. Dhabhar FS, McEwen BS (1996) Stress-induced enhancement of antigen-specific cell-mediated immunity. J Immunol 156:2608–2615

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  64. Petrie KJ, Booth RJ, Pennebaker JW et al (1995) Disclosure of trauma and immune response to a hepatitis B vaccination program. J Consult Clin Psychol 63:787–792

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  65. Gallagher S, Phillips AC, Ferraro AJ et al (2008) Psychosocial factors are associated with the antibody response to both thymus-dependent and thymus-independent vaccines. Brain Behav Immun 22:456–460

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  66. Snyder BK, Roghmann KJ, Sigal LH (1990) Effect of stress and other biopsychosocial factors on primary antibody response. J Adolesc Health Care 11:472–479

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  67. Cohen S, Miller GE, Rabin BS (2001) Psychological stress and antibody response to immunization: a critical review of the human literature. Psychosom Med 63:7–18

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  68. Boyce WT, Adams S, Tschann JM et al (1995) Adrenocortical and behavioral predictors of immune response to starting school. Pediatr Res 38:1009–1017

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  69. Gallagher S, Phillips AC, Ferraro AJ et al (2008) Social support is positively associated with the immunoglobulin M response to vaccination with pneumococcal polysaccharides. Biol Psychol 78:211–215. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2008.01.001

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  70. Edwards KM, Burns VE, Reynolds T et al (2006) Acute stress exposure prior to influenza vaccination enhances antibody response in women. Brain Behav Immun 20:159–168

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  71. Edwards KM, Burns VE, Adkins AE et al (2008) Meningococcal A vaccination response is enhanced by acute stress in men. Psychosom Med 70:147–151

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  72. Edwards KM, Burns VE, Allen LM et al (2007) Eccentric exercise as an adjuvant to influenza vaccination in humans. Brain Behav Immun 21:209–217

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  73. Edwards KM, Campbell JP, Ring C et al (2010) Exercise intensity does not influence the efficacy of eccentric exercise as a behavioural adjuvant to vaccination. Brain Behav Immun 24:623–630. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2010.01.009

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  74. Phillips AC, Gallagher S, Carroll D et al (2008) Morning vaccine administration is associated with an enhanced response to vaccination in men. Psychophysiology 45:663–666

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  75. Long JE, Drayson MT, Taylor AE et al (2016) Morning vaccination enhances antibody response over afternoon vaccination: a cluster-randomised trial. Vaccine 34:2679–2685. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.04.032

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  76. Long JE, Drayson MT, Taylor AE et al (2016) Corrigendum to ‘Morning vaccination enhances antibody response over afternoon vaccination: a cluster-randomised trial’ [Vaccine 34 (2016) 2679-2685]. Vaccine 34:4842. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.08.031

    CrossRef  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  77. Pressman SD, Cohen S, Miller GE et al (2005) Loneliness, social network size, and immune response to influenza vaccination in college freshmen. Health Psychol 24:297–306

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  78. O’Connor TG, Wang H, Moynihan JA et al (2015) Observed parent-child relationship quality predicts antibody response to vaccination in children. Brain Behav Immun 48:265–273. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2015.04.002

    CrossRef  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  79. Smith TW, Glaser K, Ruiz JM et al (2004) Hostility, anger, aggressiveness, and coronary heart disease: an interpersonal perspective on personality, emotion, and health. J Pers 72:1217–1270

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  80. Morag M, Morag A, Reichenberg MA et al (1999) Psychological variables as predictors of rubella antibody titers and fatigue - a prospective double blind study. J Psychiatr Res 33:389–395

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  81. Phillips AC, Carroll D, Burns VE et al (2005) Neuroticism, cortisol reactivity, and antibody response to vaccination. Psychophysiology 42:232–238

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  82. Marsland AL, Cohen S, Rabin BS et al (2006) Trait positive affect and antibody response to hepatitis B vaccination. Brain Behav Immun 20:261–269. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2005.08.009

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  83. Kohut ML, Cooper MM, Nickolaus MS et al (2002) Exercise and psychosocial factors modulate immunity to influenza vaccine in elderly individuals. J Gerontol 57:557–562

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  84. Vedhara K, Bennett PD, Clark S et al (2003) Enhancement of antibody responses to influenza vaccination in the elderly following a cognitive-behavioural stress management intervention. Psychother Psychosom 72:245–252

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Anna C. Whittaker .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2018 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature

About this protocol

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this protocol

Whittaker, A.C. (2018). The Vaccination Model in Psychoneuroimmunology Research: A Review. In: Yan, Q. (eds) Psychoneuroimmunology. Methods in Molecular Biology, vol 1781. Humana Press, New York, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-7828-1_16

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-7828-1_16

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Humana Press, New York, NY

  • Print ISBN: 978-1-4939-7827-4

  • Online ISBN: 978-1-4939-7828-1

  • eBook Packages: Springer Protocols