Orchid Micropropagation: An Overview of Approaches and Methodologies

  • Tim W. Yam
  • J. Arditti
Protocol
Part of the Springer Protocols Handbooks book series (SPH)

Abstract

Micropropagation can be used as means of such ex situ conservation. Sometimes, when there is only one plant left in the natural habitat, the only way to bulk up the population is by micropropagation. One of Singapore’s critically endangered species, Robiquetia spathulata, has been successfully cloned and reintroduced using this method. However, plantlets produced by cloning are genetically homogenous and thus are less suitable for conservation and repopulation than genetically diverse seedlings. This chapter provides an overview on various types of explants used in orchid micropropagation. General methodologies in the handling and culturing of explants are discussed.

Key words

Micropropagation Culture conditions Culture media Explant isolation Medium additives Plant growth regulators Sterilization procedures 

References

  1. 1.
    Krikorian AD (1982) Cloning higher plants from aseptically cultured tissues and cells. Biol Rev 57:151–218Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hartman HT, Kester DE (1983) Plant propagation, principles and practices, 4th edn. Prentice-Hall, Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Loo SW (1945) Cultivation of excised stem tips of intact plants under aseptic conditions. Ph.D. Diss., California Institute of Technology, PasadenaGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Loo SW (1945) Cultivation of excised stem tips of Asparagus in vitro. Am J Bot 32:13–17Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ball EA (1946) Development in sterile culture of stem tips and subjacent regions of Tropaeolum majus L., and of Lupinus albus L. Am J Bot 33:301–318Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rotor G Jr (1949) A method for vegetative propagation of Phalaenopsis species and hybrids. Am Orchid Soc Bull 18:738–739Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Thomale H (1956) Neue Wege der Orchideenvernehrung. Die Orchidee 7:104–105Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Thomale H (1957) Die Orchideen, 2nd edn. Verlag Eugen Ulmer, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Morel G (1960) Producing virus-free cymbidiums. Am Orchid Soc Bull 29:495–497Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wimber DE (1963) Clonal multiplication of cymbidiums through tissue culture of the shoot meristem. Am Orchid Soc Bull 32:105–107Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Arditti J, Krikorian AD (1996) Orchid micropropagation: the path from laboratory to commercialization and an account of several unappreciated investigators. Bot J Linn Soc 122:183–241Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Arditti J (1977) Clonal propagation of orchids by means of leaf cultures in vitro: a short review. Orchid Rev (England) 85:102–103Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Arditti J (1977) Clonal propagation of orchids by means of tissue culture—a manual. In: Arditti J (ed) Orchid biology: reviews and perspectives, vol I. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, pp 203–293Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Arditti J (2008) Micropropagation of orchids, 2nd edn. Blackwell Publishing, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Arditti J, Ernst R (1993) Micropropagation of orchids, 1st edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Yam TW, Arditti J (2017) Micropropagation of orchids, 3rd edn. Wiley, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Vajrabhaya T, Vajrabhaya M (1976) The study of various organs of orchids in vitro. I. Stems, leaves and buds. Rep Sci Res. Fac Sci Chulalongkorn Univ 1:105–115Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Vajrabhaya T, Vajrabhaya M (1976) The study on growth of organs of orchids in vitro (nutrition). Chulalongkorn Res J 3:109–127Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Vajrabhaya T (1977) Variations in clonal propagation. In: Arditti J (ed) Orchid biology: reviews and perspectives, vol 1. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, pp 176–201Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sahavacharin O (1980) Mutation in the tissue culture of orchids. In: Sukshom Kashemsanta MR (ed) Proc. 9th World Orchid Conf., Bangkok, 1978, pp 223–225Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rentoul JN (1981) Mericloning and colour pigmentation. Aust Orchid Rev 46:249–252Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Teo CKH (1981) Developing better plants through tissue culture. Malayan Orchid Rev (Singapore) 15:25–27Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Beechey C (1970) Propagation of orchids from aerial roots? Am Orchid Soc Bull 41:1085–1088Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ojima K, Fujiwara A (1962) Studies on the growth promoting substance of the excised wheat root. III. Effects of tryptophan and some related substances. Tohoku J Agric Res 13:69–98Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Churchill M-E, Ball EA, Arditti J (1972) Tissue culture of orchids. II. Methods for root tips. Am Orchid Soc Bull 41:726–730Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Tanaka M, Senda Y, Hasegawa A (1976) Plantlet formation by root-tip culture in Phalaenopsis. Am Orchid Soc Bull 45:1022–1024Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kerbauy GB (1984) Regeneration of protocorm-like bodies through in vitro culture of root tips of Catasetum (Orchidaceae). Z Pflanzenphysiol 113:287–291Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Colli S, Kerbauy G (1993) Direct root tip conversion of Catasetum into protocorm-like bodies. Effects of auxin and cytokinin. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 33:39–44Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    APA V, Kerbauy G, Figueiredo-Ribeiro RCL (1998) Changes in soluble carbohydrates and starch partitioning during vegetative bud formation from root tips of Catasetum fimbriatum (Orchidaceae). Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 54:105–111Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Peres LEP, Amar S, Kerbauy GB, Slatino A, Zaffari GR, Mercier H (1999) Effects of auxin, cytokinin and ethylene treatments on the endogenous ethylene and auxin-to-cytokinin ratio related to direct root tip conversion of Catasetum fimbriatum Lindl. (Orchidaceae) into buds. J Plant Physiol 155:551–555Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kerbauy GB (1991) In vitro conversion of Cattleya root tip cells into protocorm-like bodies. J Plant Physiol 138:248–251Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Pindel A, Miczycski K (1996) Regeneration of Cymbidium orchids from leaf and root explants. Folia Holtic 8:95–105Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Jo S, Nishimura N, Okazawa Y (2001) Micropropagation of Cypripedium yatabeanum through root tip culture in vitro. In: S. Ichihashi (ed) Proc. of APOC7 (2001), Nagoya, Japan. Secretariat of 7th APOC, 1 Imahori, Ushida, Chiryu, Aichi 472-0007, Japan, pp 58–59. http://village.infoweb.ne.jp/~fwkb0570/index-e.htm
  34. 34.
    Sanchez ML (1988) Micropropagation of Cyrtopodium (Orchidaceae) through root-tip culture. Lindleyana 3:93–96Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Tsukazaki H, Mii M, Tokuhara K, Ishikawa K (2000) Cryopreservation of Doritaenopsis suspension culture by vitrification. Plant Cell Rep 19:1160–1164Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Park SY, Ichihashi S, Paek KY (2001) Micropropagation of Doritaenopsis hybrids through root-tip cultures. In: Ichihashi S, Nagata H (eds) Proc. 7th Asia Pacific Orchid Conf. CD available from Secretariat APOC 7, 1 Imohori, Ushida, Chiryu, Aichi 472–0007, Japan, pp 200–201Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sood A, Vij SP (1986) In vitro root segment culture of Rhynchostylis retusa Bl. In: Vij SP (ed) Biology, conservation, and culture of orchids. Published for the Orchid Society of India by the Affiliated East-West Press, New Delhi, pp 463–468Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Vij SP, Pathak P, Sharma M (1987) On the regeneration of Rhynchostylis retusa root segments. J Orchid Soc India 1:71–74Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Vij SP (1993) Regeneration response of orchid roots: a study in vitro. J Orchid Soc India 7:61–72Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ueda H, Torikata H (1972) Effects of light and culture medium on adventitious root formation by Cymbidium in aseptic culture. Am Orchid Soc Bull 41:322–327Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Rao AN (1977) Tissue culture in the orchid industry. In: Reinert J, Bajaj YPS (eds) Plant cell, tissue, and organ culture. Springer, New York, pp 207–248, pp 44–69, 207–248Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Nayak NR, Chand PK, Rath SP, Patnaik SN (1998) Influence of some plant growth regulators on the growth and organogenesis of Cymbidium aloifolium (L.) Sw. Seed-derived rhizomes in vitro. In Vitro Cell Dev BiolPlant 34:185–188Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Paek KY, Yoo GJ, Park MR, Hisajima S (1993) Effects of sucrose and changes of free sugar content during organogenesis through rhizome culture of temperate Cymbidium. Proc Nagoya Orchid Show 93:55–63Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Chang C, Chang WC (1998) Plant regeneration from callus culture of Cymbidium ensifolium Var. misericors. Plant Cell Rep 17:251–255Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Chang C, Chang WC (2000) Effect of thidiazuron on bud development of Cymbidium sinense Willd in vitro. Plant Growth Regul 30:171–175Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Paek KY, Kozai T (1998) Micropropagation of temperate Cymbidium via rhizome culture. HortTechnology 8:283–287Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Sheelavantmath SS, Murthy HN, Pyati AN, Kumar HGA, Ravishankar BV (2000) In vitro propagation of the endangered orchid, Geodorum densiflorum (Lam.) Schltr. through rhizome section culture. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 60:151–154Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Vij SP, Sood A, Sharma A, Shekhar N (1983) In vitro tuber culture of Pachystoma senile—a ground growing orchid. Trop Plant Sci Res 1:211–213Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Champagnat M, Morel G, Mounetou B (1970) La multiplication végétative des Cattleya a partir do jeunes feuiles cultivées aseptiquement in vitro. Ann Sci Nat Bot Biol Veg Ser 12(11):97–114Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Arditti J, Ball EA, Churchill ME (1971) Propagacion clonal de orquideas utilizando apices de hojas. Orquidea (Mexico) 2:290–300Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Ball EA, Arditti J, Churchill ME (1971) Clonal propagation of orchids from leaf tips. Orchid Rev 79:281–288Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Churchill ME, Arditti J, Ball EA (1971) Clonal propagation of orchids from leaf tips. Am Orchid Soc Bull 42:109–113Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Churchill ME, Ball EA, Arditti J (1971) Production of orchids from seedling leaf tips. Orchid Digest 34:71–273Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Churchill ME, Flick BH, Ball EA, Arditti J (1971b) Vermehrung von Orchideen durch Blattspitzen. Orchidee 22:147–151Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Churchill ME, Arditti J, Ball EA (1972) Propagao clonal de orquideas a partir de apices de folha. Biol Soc Campineira Orquideas 2:23–28Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Churchill ME, Ball EA, Arditti J (1973) Tissue culture of orchids. I. Methods for leaf tips. New Phytol 72:161–166Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Nayak NR, Patnaik S, Rath SP (1997) Direct shoot regeneration from foliar explants of an epiphytic orchid, Acampe praemorsa (Roxb.) Blatter and McCann. Plant Cell Rep 16:583–586Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Murthy HN, Pyati AH (2001) Micropropagation of Aerides maculosum Lindl. (Orchidaceae). In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 37:223–226Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Loh CS, Rao AN, Goh CJ (1975) Clonal propagation from leaves in the orchid Aranda. J Singapore Natl Acad Sci 4:97–99Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Fu FML (1978) Clonal propagation of Aranda, Ascocenda, and Cattleya by leaf tissue culture. Gard Bull (Singapore) 31:132–138Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Fu FML (1979) Studies on the tissue culture of orchids. 2: Clonal propagation of Aranda, Ascocenda, and Cattleya by leaf tissue culture. Orchid Rev 87:343–346Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Manorama P, Rao AN, Goh CJ, Loh CS (1986) Leaf callus development in Aranda and Dendrobium. In: Rao AN (ed) Proc Fifth ASEAN Orchid Cong, 1984, Singapore, pp 102–109Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Gopalan G, Krishnan PN, Seeni S (1992) Levels of starch and α-amylase during protocorm like-body formation in foliar explants of a Cymbidium hybrid. Indian J Exp Biol 30:796–800Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Matos M, De García E (1991) Plant regeneration from young leaves of Laeliocattleya John Cunningham. Phyton 52:119–124Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Abdul Ghani AK, Haris H (1992) Plantlet formation from young leaves of Mokara. Lindleyana 7:11–12Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Chen JT, Chang C, Chang WC (1999) Direct somatic embryogenesis on leaf explants of Oncidium Gower Ramsey and subsequent plant regeneration. Plant Cell Rep 19:143–149Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Chen JT, Chang WC (2001) Effects of auxins and cytokinins on direct somatic embryogenesis on leaf explants of Oncidium ‘Gower Ramsey’. Plant Growth Regul 34:229–232Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Pathak P, Vij SP (2001) In vitro regeneration of Papilionanthe teres (Roxb.) Schltr.: utility of foliar explants. In: Ichihashi S, Nagata H (eds) Proc. of APOC7, Nagoya, Japan. Secretariat of APOC 7, 1 Imohori, Ushida, Chiryu, Aichi 472-0007, Japan, pp 226–227Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Tanaka M, Hasegawa A, Goi M (1974) Studies on the clonal propagation of monopodial orchids by tissue culture. I. Formation of protocorm-like bodies from leaf tissue in Phalaenopsis and Vanda in vitro. J Jpn Soc Horti Sci (cited in Tanaka et al., 1976)Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Tanaka M, Sakanishi Y (1977) Clonal propagation of Phalaenopsis by leaf tissue culture. Am Orchid Soc Bull 46:733–737Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Tanaka M (1992) Micropropagation of Phalaenopsis spp. In: Baja YPS (ed) Biotechnology in agriculture and forestry. Springer, Berlin, pp 246–268Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Park SY, Paek KY (1999) Occurrence of abnormal plantlets and their morphological characteristics as affected by clones and culture periods in clonally propagated Phalaenopsis by leaf culture. J Korean Soc Hortic Sci 40:731–734Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Park SY, Murthy HN, Paek KY (2002) Rapid propagation of Phalaenopsis from floral-derived leaves. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 38:168–172Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Goh CJ, Tan H (1982) Clonal propagation from leaf explants in Renantanda orchid hybrid. Orchid Rev 90:295–296Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Abdul Ghani AK, Haris H, Bin Haji Ujang N (1992) Production of Renantanda plantlets from shoot tips in vitro. Lindleyana 7:3–6Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Seeni S, Latha PG (1992) Foliar regeneration of the endangered red Vanda, Renanthera imschootiana Rolfe (Orchidaceae). Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 29:167–172Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Fukui H, Li YH, Shiraki H (2001) Plant regeneration from shoot tip and leaf and histomorphological observation of callus in Vanda coerulea. In: Ichihashi S, Nagata H (eds) Proc. 7th Asia Pacific Orchid Conf. (Apoc7, Aichi-Nagoya 2001). Compact Disk published by Secretariat of APOC7, 1 Imohori, Ushida, Chiryu, Aichi 472-0007, Japan, pp 193–195Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Vij SP, Sood A, Plaha KK (1984) Propagation of Rhynchostylis retusa Bl (Orchidaceae) by direct organogenesis from leaf segment cultures. Bot Gaz 145:210–214Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Allenberg H (1976) Notizen zur Keimung, Meristemkultur and Regeneration von Erdorchideen. Die Orchidee 27:28–31Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Seeni S, Latha PG (2000) In vitro multiplication and ecorehabilitation of the endangered blue Vanda. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 61:1–8Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Sharma V, Vij SP (1997) Effect of CuSO4·5H2O on in vitro regenerative capacity of foliar explants excised from mature Vanda cristata Lindl. plants. Phytomorphology 47:203–208Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Niraula R, Rajbhandary SB (1988) Regeneration of plants from leaf explants in orchid Vanda teres Lind. In: Prasad BN, Ghimire GPS, Agrawal V (eds) Role of biotechnology in agriculture: first regional conference. Kathmandu, Nepal. International Science Publisher, New York, pp 103–107Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Chaturvedi HC, Sharma AK (1986) Mericloning of orchids through culture of tips of leaves and roots. In: Vij SP (ed) Biology, conservation, and culture of orchids. Published for the Orchid Society of India by the Affiliated East-West Press, New Delhi, pp 469–472Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Zimmer K (1978) Die labormässige vegetative Vermehrung der Orchideen. In: Briger FG, Maatsch R, Senghas K (eds) Rudolf Schlechter’s Orchideen, vol 3, 3rd edn. Paul Parey, Berlin, pp 158–159Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Zimmer K (1978b) Zur vegetativen Vermehrung von Orchideen. Dtsch. Gartenbauwissenschaft 34:330–334Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Fast G (1979) Klonvermehrung von Phragmipedium Sedenii and Phalaenopsis hybr. aus Bliitenknospen. Die Orchidee 30:241–244Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Arditti J, Goh CJ (1981) Tissue culture of orchids. In: Lawler LJ, Kerr R (eds) Proc. Orchid Symp.13th Bot. Congr., Orchid Society of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia, pp 65–72Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Czerevczenko TM, Kushnir GP (1986) Orhidei v kulture. Naukova Dumka, KievGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Yam TW, Arditti J (2009) History of orchid propagation: a mirror of the history of biotechnology. Plant Biotechnol Rep 3:1–56Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Bertsch W (1966) A new frontier: Orchid propagation by meristem tissue culture. In: de Garmo LR (ed) Proc. 5th World Orchid Conf., Long Beach, California, 1965, pp 225–229Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Mitra GC (1971) Studies of seeds, shoot-tips and stem-disks of an orchid grown in aseptic culture. Indian J Exp Biol 9:79–85Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Arditti J, Mosich SK, Ball EA (1973) Dendrobium node cultures: a new means of clonal propagation. Aust Orchid Rev 38:175–179Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Mosich SK, Ball EA, Arditti J (1973) Propagation clonal de Dendrobium por mediodel cultivo de nodos. Orquidea (Mexico) 3:244–260Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Mosich SK, Ball EA, Arditti J (1974) Clonal propagation of orchids by means of node cultures. Am Orchid Soc Bull 43:1005–1061Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Mosich SK, Ball EA, Flick BH, Arditti J (1974) Klonvermehrung von Dendrobium durch die Kultivierung von Stammnodien. Orchidee 25:129–134Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Ito I (1960) Culture of orchid seedlings by way of completing the growth of cut flowers. Jpn Orchid Soc Bull 6:4–7Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Ito I (1961) In vitro culture of ovary and seed in orchids. Kyoto, Olericulture Lab., Fac Agric Kyoto Prefectural UniversityGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Ito I (1955) Germination of seeds from immature pod and subsequent growth of seedlings in Dendrobium nobile Lndl. Sci Rep Saikyo Univ Agric 7:35–42Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Withner CL (1955) Ovule culture and growth of Vanilla seedlings. Am Orchid Soc Bull 24:380–382Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Ayers J (1960) Embryo culture of Phalaenopsis seedlings. Am Orchid Soc Bull 29:518–519Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Niimoto DH, Sagawa Y (1961) Ovule development in Dendrobium. Am Orchid Soc Bull 30:813–819Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Rao AN, Avadhani PN (1964) Some aspects of vitro culture of Vanda seeds. In: Yeoh BC (ed) Proceedings of the 4th World Orchid Conference, Singapore 1963. Straits Times Press (M), Singapore, pp 194–202Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Ernst R (1982) Paphiopedilum. In: Arditti J (ed) Orchid biology: reviews and perspectives, vol II. Cornell University Press, New York, pp 350–353Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Withner CL (1959b) Orchid culture media and nutrient solutions. In: Withner CL (ed) The orchids, a scientific survey. Ronald Press, New York, pp 589–599Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Intuwong O, Sagawa Y (1973) Clonal propagation of Sarcanthinae orchids by aseptic culture of inflorescences. Am Orchid Soc Bull 42:209–215Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Kim KW, Kako S (1984) Studies on clonal propagation in the Cymbidium floral organ culture in vitro. J Korean Soc Hortic Soc 25:65–71Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Shimasaki K, Uemoto S (1991) Rhizome induction and plantlet regeneration of Cymbidium goeringii from flower bud culture in vitro. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 25:45–52Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Fast G (1980) Vermehrung and Anzucht. In: Fast G (ed) Orchideenkultur. Eugen, Stuttgart, pp 201–283Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Goh CJ, Wong PF (1990) Micropropagation of the monopodial orchid hybrid Aranda ‘Deborah’ using inflorescence explants. Sci Hortic 44:315–321Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Singh H, Sagawa Y (1972) Vegetative propagation of Dendrobium by flower stalk cuttings. Hawaii Orchid J 1:19. (pagination in each issue of this volume is separate)Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Tokuhara K, Mii M (1993) Micropropagation of Phalaenopsis and Doritaenopsis by culturing shoot tips of flower stalk buds. Plant Cell Rep 13:7–11PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Yamazaki J, Takahashi Y, Tsuyuki Y, Kohara H, Kataoka K (1997) The difference of a shoot and PLB formation ability of the axillary bud and shoot tip culture in Doritaenopsis and Phalaenopsis. Bull Fac Agric Tamagawa Univ 37:49–61. (in Japanese with an English summary)Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Chen JT, Chang WC (2000) Efficient plant regeneration through somatic embryogenesis from callus cultures of Oncidium (Orchidaceae). Plant Sci 160:87–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Ichihashi S (1992) Micropropagation of Phalaenopsis through the culture of lateral buds from young flower stalks. Lindleyana 7:208–215Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Ichihashi S (1992) Micropropagation of Phalaenopsis through the culture of lateral buds from young flower stalks. In: Ichihashi S, Nagata H (eds) Proc. Nagoya Int. Orchid Show ‘92. The Organizing Committee of the Nagoya International Orchid Show ‘92, Secretariat of NIOS’92 11-1 Kawaseyama, Igaya-cho, Kariya-shi, Aichi-ken 448, Japan, pp 103–109Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Tokuhara K, Mii M (1998) Somaclonal variations in flower and inflorescence axis in micropropagated plants through flower stalk bud culture of Phalaenopsis and Doritaenopsis. Plant Biotechnol 15:23–28Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Tokuhara K, Mii M (2001) Induction of embryogenic callus and cell suspension culture from shoot tips excised from flower stalk buds of Phalaenopsis (Orchidaceae). In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 37:457–461Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Chen Y, Piluek C (1995) Effects of thidiazuron and N6-benzylaminopurine on shoot regeneration of Phalaenopsis. Plant Growth Regul 16:99–101Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Duan JX, Yazawa S (1995) Induction of precocious flowering and seed formation of xDoriella Tiny (Doritis pulcherrima x Kingiella philippinensis) in vitro and in vivo. Acta Hortic 397:103–110Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Duan JX, Yazawa S (1995) Floral induction and development in Phalaenopsis in vitro. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 43:71–74Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Ichihashi S, Hiraiwa H (1996) Effects of solidifier, coconut water, and carbohydrate source on growth of embryogenic callus in Phalaenopsis, and allied genera. J Orchid Soc India 10:81–88Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Jiménez VM, Guevara E (1996) Propagacion in vitro de Phalaenopsis (Orchidaceae) mediante el cultivo de secciones de ejes florales despues de la senescencia de las flores. Agr Costar 20:75–79Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Park YS, Kakuta S, Kani A, Okabe M (1996) Efficient propagation of protocorm-like bodies of Phalaenopsis in liquid medium. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 45:79–85Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Islam MO, Ichihashi S, Matsui S (1998) Control of growth and development of protocorm like body derived from callus by carbon sources in Phalaenopsis. Plant. Biotechnology 15:183–187Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Ichihashi S, Tsuzuki M, Aswath CR (2000) Studies on micropropagation of Phalaenopsis alliance. Bull Aichi Univ Educ 49:51–56Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    North C (1953) Experiments with root cuttings of Brussel sprouts. Ann Appl Biol 40:250–261Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Morel G, Martin S (1955a) Guérison de pommes de terre atteintes de maladies à virus. C R Acad Agric Fr 119:877–878Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Morel G, Martin S (1955b) Guérison de plantes atteintes de maladies à virus par culture de méristèmes apicaux. Report of the XIV International Horticulture Congress, The Hague, Netherlands, vol 1. Veenman & Zonern, Wageningen, pp 303–310Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Morel G, Muller JF (1964) Le culture in vitro du méristemè apical de la pomme de terre. C R Acad Sci Paris 258:5250–5252Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Gautheret RJ (1983) Plant tissue culture: a history. Bot Mag Tokyo 96:393–410Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Gautheret RJ (1985) History of plant tissue and cell culture: a personal account. In: Vasil IK (ed) Cell culture and somatic cell genetics, vol 2. Academic, Orlando, pp 1–59Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Kassanis B (1957) The use of tissue cultures to produce virus-free clones from infected potato varieties. Ann Appl Biol 45:422–427Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Albouy J, Flouzat C, Kusiak C, Tronchet M (1988) Eradication of orchid viruses by chemotherapy from in-vitro cultures of Cymbidium. Acta Hortic 234:413–420Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Knudson L (1946) A new nutrient solution for the germination of orchid seed. Am Orchid Soc Bull 15:214–217Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Linsmaier EM, Skoog F (1965) Organic growth factor requirements of tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol Plant 18:100–127Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Mitra GC, Prasad RN, Roychowdhury A (1976) Inorganic salts and differentiation of protocorms in seed-callus of an orchid and correlated changes in its free amino acid content. Indian J Exp Biol 14:350–351Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Murashige T, Skoog F (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol Plant 15:473–497Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Vacin E, Went FW (1949) Some pH changes in nutrient solutions. Bot Gaz 110:605–613Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Hew CS, Lim LY (1989) Mineral uptake by orchid plantlets grown on an agar medium. Soilless Cult 25:23–34Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Lee YK, Hew CS, Loh CS (1987) Uptake of ammonium and nitrate in callus tissue cultures of orchid Aranda Noorah Alsagoff. Singapore J Primary Ind 15:37–41Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Posthumus AC (1971) Auxins. In: van Bragt J, Mossel DAA, Pierik RLM, Veldstra H (eds) Effects of sterilization on components in nutrient media. H. Veenman & NV Zonen, Wageningen, pp 125–128Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Nissen SJ, Sutter EG (1990) Stability of IAA and IBA in nutrient medium to several tissue culture procedures. Hortscience 25:800–802Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Dekhuijzen HM (1971) Sterilization of cytokinins. In: van Bragt J, Mossel DAA, Pierik RLM, Veldstra H (eds) Effects of sterilization on components in nutrient media. H. Veenman & NV Zonen, Wageningen, pp 129–132Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Mok MC, Mok DWS, Armstrong DJ, Shudo K, Isogai Y, Okamoto T (1982) Cytokinin activity of N-phenyl-N′-1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-ylurea (Thidiazuron). Phytochemistry 21:1509–1511Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Mok MC, Mok DWS, Turner JE, Mujer CV (1987) Biological and biochemical effects of cytokinin-active phenylurea derivatives in tissue culture systems. Hortscience 22:1194–1196Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Mok MC, Mok DWS (1985) The metabolism of (14C)-thidiazuron in callus tissues of Phaseolus lunatus. Physiol Plant 65:427–432Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Ernst R (1994) Effect of thidiazuron on in vitro propagation of Phalaenopsis and Doritaenopsis (Orchidaceae). Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 39:273–275Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Huetterman CA, Preece JE (1993) Thidiazuron: a potent cytokinin for woody plant tissue culture. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 33:105–119Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    van Bragt J, Pierik RLM (1971) The effect of autoclaving on the gibberellin activity of aqueous solutions containing gibberellin A3. In: van Bragt J, Mossel DAA, Pierik RLM, Veldstra H (eds) Effects of sterilization on components in nutrient media. H. Veenman & NV Zonen, Wageningen, pp 133–137Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Chen JT, Chang WC (2003) Effects of GA3 ancymidol, cycocel and paclobutrazol on direct somatic embryogenesis of Oncidium in vitro. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 72:105–108Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Dotzauer D, Wolfenstetter S, Eibert D, Schneider S, Dietrich P, Sauer N (2010) Novel PSI domains in plant and animal H+-inositor symporters. Traffic 11:767–781PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Werkmeister P (1970b) Die Steuerung von Vermehrung (Proliferation) and Wachstum in der Meristemkultur von Cymbidium und die Verwendung eines Kohlen-Nahrmediums. Orchidee 21:126–131Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Werkmeister P (1970a) Über die Lichtinduktion der geotropen Orientirung von Luft—und Bodenwurzeln in Gewebekulturen von Cymbidium. Ber Deutsch Bot Ges 83:19–26Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Werkmeister P (1971) Light induction of geotropism and the control of proliferation and growth of Cymbidium in tissue culture. Bot Gaz 132:346–350Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Ernst R (1974) The use of activated charcoal in asymbiotic seedling culture of Paphiopedilum. Am Orchid Soc Bull 43:35–38Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Ernst R (1975) Studies on asymbiotic culture of orchids. Am Orchid Soc Bull 44:12–18Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Ernst R (1976) Charcoal or glasswool in asymbiotic culture of orchids. In: Senghas K (ed) Proceedings of the 8th World Orchid Conference, Frankfurt, German Orchid Society, pp 379–383Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Reuveni Q, and Lillien-Kipnis H (1971) Studies on the in vitro culture of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) tissue and organs. Pamphlet No. 145. Volcani Inst Agric Res, Rehovoth, IsraelGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Nakamura A, Itagaki R (1973) Anther culture in Nicotiana and the characteristics of the haploid plants. Jpn J Breed 23:71–78Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Anagnostakis SL (1974) Haploid plants from anthers of tobacco—enhancement with charcoal. Planta 115:281–283PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Irikura Y (1975) Induction of haploid plants in tuber bearing species and interspecific hybrids of Solanum. Potato Res 18:133–140Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Irikura Y (1975) Cytogenetic studies on the haploid plants of tuber bearing Solanum species. 1. Induction of haploid plants of tuber bearing solanums. Res Bull No. 112 Hokkaido Natl Agric Exp Stn, JapanGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Bajaj YPS, Reinert J, Heberle E (1976) Factors enhancing in vitro production of haploid plants in anthers and isolated microspores. In: Gautheret RJ (ed) A la memoire de Georges Morel. Masson et Cie, Paris, pp 47–58Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Wang PJ, Huang LC (1976) Beneficial effects of activated charcoal on plant tissue and organ cultures. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 12:260–262Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Wernicke W, Kohlenbach HW (1976) Investigations in liquid culture medium as a means of anther culture in Nicotiana. Z Pflanzenphysiol 79:189–198Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Weatherhead MA, Burdon J, Henshaw GG (1978) Some effects of charcoal as an additive to plant tissue culture media. Z Pflanzenphysiol 89:141–147Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Weatherhead MA, Burdon J, Henshaw GG (1979) Effects of activated charcoal as an additive to plant tissue culture media: Part 2. Z Pflanzenphysiol 94:399–405Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Wann SR, Veazey RL, Kahammer J (1997) Activated charcoal does not catalyze sucrose hydrolysis in tissue culture media during autoclaving. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 50:221–224Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Yam TW, Ernst R, Arditti J, Nair H, Weatherhead MA (1990) Charcoal in orchid seed and tissue culture media: a review. Lindleyana 5:256–265Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Proskauer J, Berman R (1970) Agar culture medium modified to approximate soil conditions. Nature 227:1161Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Klein B, Bopp M (1971) Effect of activated charcoal in agar on the culture of lower plants. Nature (Lond) 230:474Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    Pan MJ, van Staden J (1998) The use of charcoal in in vitro culture—a review. Plant Growth Regul 26:155–163Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Thomas TD (2008) The role of activated charcoal in plant tissue culture. Biotechnol Adv 26:618–631PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Fridborg G, Eriksson T (1975) Effects of activated charcoal on growth and morphogenesis in cell cultures. Physiol Plant 34:306–308Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Constantin MJ, Henke RR, Mansur MA (1977) Effects of activated charcoal on callus growth and shoot organogenesis in tobacco. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 13:293–296Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Fridborg G, Pedersen M, Landstrom LE, Eriksson T (1978) The effects of activated charcoal on tissue cultures: adsorption of metabolites inhibiting morphogenesis. Physiol Plant 43:104–106Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    Withner CL (1974) Developments in orchid physiology. In: Wither CL (ed) The orchids, scientific studies. Wiley, New York, pp 129–168Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    Arditti J (1968) Germination and growth of orchids on banana fruit tissue and some of its extracts. Am Orchid Soc Bull 37:112–116Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    Ernst R (1967) Effect of select organic nutrient additives on growth in vitro of Phalaenopsis seedlings. Am Orchid Soc Bull 36:386–394Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Brown DM, Groom CL, Cvitanik M, Brown M, Cooper JL, Arditti J (1982) Effects of fungicides and bactericides on orchid seed germination and shoot tip cultures in vitro. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 1:165–180Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    Bautista NR, Quilang AB, Taylan GB, Madera RF, Pulma CC (2002) Effect of plant preservative mixture™ (PPM) on contamination rate and growth of Vanda sanderiana Reichb. F seedlings (Orchidaceae) in vitro. In: Proc World Conf Science Technology: harnessing science and technology to meet the global challenge. Association for the Advancement of Science, Manila Philippine, 13–15 September 2001, pp 121–126Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    Cameron SI (2008) Plant tissue culture gelling agents and supports: history, development and function. In: Teixeira da da Silva JA (ed) Floriculture and plant biotechnology, vol 18. Global Science Boo, Isleworth, pp 171–191Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Ernst R, Arditti J, Healey PL (1971) Biological effects of surfactants. I. Influence on the growth of orchid seedlings. New Phytol 70:456–475Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    Healey PL, Ernst R, Arditti J (1971) Biological effects of surfactants. II. Influence on the ultrastructure of orchid seedlings. New Phytol 70:477–482Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    Teixeira da Silva JA (2013) The role of thin cell layers in regeneration and transformation in orchids. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 113:149–161Google Scholar
  186. 186.
    Lee SM, Lam-Chan LT (1995) Study on the use of transparent polybags to culture orchid plantlets in vitro. Singapore J Primary Ind 23:53–54Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Tanaka M, Jinno K, Goi M, Higashiura T (1988) The use of disposable fluorocarbon polymer film culture vessel in micropropagation. Acta Hortic 230:73–80Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    Tanaka M (1991) Disposable film culture vessels. In: Bajaj YPS (ed) Biotechnology in agriculture and forestry, vol 17. Springer, Berlin, pp 212–228Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    Tanaka M (1991) Micropropagation of orchids by using a novel film culture vessel. In: Kimura T, Ichihashi S, Nagata H (eds) Proc. Nagoya Int. Orchid Show. Frontier Orchid Co., Ltd., Aichi-ken, pp 97–99Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    Hew CS, Hin SE, Yong JWH, Goul SS, Tanaka M (1995) In vitro CO2 enrichment of CAM orchid plantlets. J Hortic Sci 70:721–736Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    Lootens P, Heursel J (1998) Irradiance, temperature, and carbon dioxide enrichment affect photosynthesis in Phalaenopsis hybrids. Hortscience 33:1183–1185Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    Mitra A, Dey S, Sawarkar SK (1998) Photoautotrophic in vitro multiplication of the orchid Dendrobium under CO2 enrichment. Biol Plant 41:145–148Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    Tanaka M, Takamura T, Watanabe H, Endo M, Yanagi T, Okamoto K (1998) In vitro growth of Cymbidium plantlets cultured under superbright red and blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs). J Hortic Sci Biotechnol 73:39–44Google Scholar
  194. 194.
    Gouk SS, He J, Hew CS (1999) Changes in photosynthetic capability and carbohydrate production in an epiphytic CAM orchid plantlet exposed to super-elevated CO2. Environ Exp Bot 41:219–230Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Latha PG (1999) Micropropagation and in vitro flower induction in Habenaria crinifera Lindl. J Orchid Soc India 13:47–53Google Scholar
  196. 196.
    Latha PG (1999) In vitro culture of the regionally endangered medicinal orchid, Nervilia aragoana. Gaud J Orchid Soc India 13:59–64Google Scholar
  197. 197.
    Koch L (1974) Untersuchungen zur vegetativen Vermehrung bei Phalaenopsis in vitro. Diss., Technical Univ., Hannover, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Koch L (1974) Erbgleiche Vermehrung von Phalaenopsis in vitro. Gartenwelt 74:482–484Google Scholar
  199. 199.
    Koch L (1974) Neues Verfahren zur Vermehrung von Orchideen-Protocormen. Erwerbsgartner 19:734–735Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    Kuhn L (1981) The Eric Young micropropagation centre. Am Orchid Soc Bull 50:47–49Google Scholar
  201. 201.
    Kuhn L (1981) New products for orchid propagators. Am Orchid Soc Bull 50:1465–1468Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    Tisserat B, Vandercook CE (1985) Development of an automated plant culture system. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 5:107–117Google Scholar
  203. 203.
    Tisserat B, Vandercook CE (1986) Computerized long-term tissue culture for orchids. Am Orchid Soc Bull 55:35–42Google Scholar
  204. 204.
    Hew CS, Chia TF, Lee YK, Loh CS (1987) The need for a flow orchid tissue culture system. Malaysian Orchid Rev 21:30–34Google Scholar
  205. 205.
    Okamoto T (1996) Robotization of orchid protocorm transplanting in tissue culture. JARQ (Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences) 30:213–220Google Scholar
  206. 206.
    Paek KY, Hahn EJ, Son SH (2001) Application of bioreactor for large-scale micropropagation systems of plants. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 37:149–157Google Scholar
  207. 207.
    Thurston KC, Spencer SJ, Arditti J (1979) Phytotoxicity of fungicides and bactericides in orchid culture media. Am J Bot 66:825–835Google Scholar
  208. 208.
    Thurston KC, Spencer SJ, Arditti J (1980) Incorporation of fungicides and bactericides in orchid seed and seedling culture media. In: Kashemsata MRS (ed.), Proc. 9th World Orchid Conf., Bangkok, 1978, pp 179–190Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tim W. Yam
    • 1
  • J. Arditti
    • 2
  1. 1.Singapore Botanic Gardens, National Parks BoardSingaporeSingapore
  2. 2.University of CaliforniaIrvineUSA

Personalised recommendations