Nowadays, the ideal biomarker for colorectal cancer (CRC) has not been found. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry (MS) are suitable techniques for searching new biomarkers. In this chapter, we describe methodology for biomarker discovery based on a proteomic approach. In addition, special attention is given to the sample preparation, including protein extraction, fractionation, and cleanup, as we consider this a critical step. Comparing the proteomic profile of tumor and mucosa, we identified the nucleoside diphosphate kinase A (NDKA) protein as a candidate biomarker for CRC. Finally, we validated NDKA with an ELISA kit using serum samples from individuals of a screening cohort. Our results suggest that serum NDKA is a potential biomarker for screening of CRC and premalignant advanced adenomas (AA).
Colorectal cancer Tissue Serum Biomarkers Proteomics Two-dimensional electrophoresis Mass spectrometry Western blot ELISA immunoassay Nucleoside diphosphate kinase A
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