Nerve Growth and Interaction in Gelfoam® Histoculture: A Nervous System Organoid

  • Robert M. Hoffman
  • Sumiyuki Mii
  • Jennifer Duong
  • Yasuyuki Amoh
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1760)


Nestin-expressing hair follicle-associated pluripotent (HAP) stem cells reside mainly in the bulge area (BA) of the hair follicle but also in the dermal papilla (DP). The BA appears to be origin of HAP stem cells. Long-term Gelfoam® histoculture was established of whiskers isolated from transgenic mice, in which there is nestin-driven green fluorescent protein (ND-GFP). HAP stem cells trafficked from the BA toward the DP area and extensively grew out onto Gelfoam® forming nerve-like structures. These fibers express the neuron marker β-III tubulin-positive fibers and consisted of ND-GFP-expressing cells and extended up to 500 mm from the whisker nerve stump in Gelfoam® histoculture. The growing fibers had growth cones on their tips expressing F-actin indicating that the fibers were growing axons. HAP stem cell proliferation resulted in elongation of the follicle nerve and interaction with other nerves in 3D Gelfoam® histoculture, including the sciatic nerve, trigeminal nerve, and trigeminal nerve ganglion.

Key words

Nestin, Green fluorescent protein Hair follicle Stem cells Sensory nerve Sciatic nerve Trigeminal nerve Nerve interaction Gelfoam® histoculture 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert M. Hoffman
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sumiyuki Mii
    • 1
    • 3
  • Jennifer Duong
    • 1
  • Yasuyuki Amoh
    • 3
  1. 1.AntiCancer Inc.San DiegoUSA
  2. 2.Department of SurgeryUCSDSan DiegoUSA
  3. 3.Department of DermatologyKitasato University School of MedicineMinami WardJapan

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