Methionine Dependency Determination of Human Patient Tumors in Gelfoam® Histoculture

  • Robert M. Hoffman
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1760)


The elevated requirement of methionine by cancer cells (methionine dependence) is a general metabolic abnormality in cancer. Methionine-dependent cancer cells are unable to proliferate and arrest in the late S/G2 phase of the cell cycle when methionine is restricted in vitro or in vivo. Cell-cycle arrest in late S/G2 was used as a biomarker of methionine dependence for patient tumors in Gelfoam® histoculture. Human cancer patient tumors, including tumors of the colon, breast, ovary, prostate, and a melanoma, were observed to be methionine dependent in Gelfoam® histoculture based on cell cycle analysis. This simple method can be used to screen patient tumors for methionine dependence and then subsequently apply appropriate chemotherapy for these patients to target this cancer-specific metabolic abnormality.

Key words

Gelfoam® histoculture Human tumors Methionine dependence Methionine restriction Cell-cycle block S/G2 phase 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.AntiCancer Inc.San DiegoUSA
  2. 2.Department of SurgeryUniversity of CaliforniaSan DiegoUSA

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