Visualizing the Vascular Network in the Mouse Embryo and Yolk Sac

  • Anna R. Roy
  • Paul Delgado-OlguinEmail author
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1752)


Whole mount immunofluorescence is a valuable technique that can be used to visualize vascular networks in early developing embryonic tissues. This technique involves the permeabilization of fixed mouse embryos and yolk sacs, and primary antibody tagging of the endothelial cell marker platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (Pecam-1). A secondary antibody tagged with a fluorophore targets the primary antibody, fluorescently labeling endothelial cells and revealing vascular networks.

Key words

Whole mount immunofluorescence Vascular network Embryo Yolk sac 



This work was supported by the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada (G-17-0018613), the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) (500865), the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) (PJT-149046), and Operational Funds from the Hospital for Sick Children to P.D.-O.


  1. 1.
    Marcel KL, Goldie LC, Hirschi KK (2013) Regulation of endothelial cell differentiation and specification. Circ Res 112(9):1272–1287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Park C, Kim TM, Malik AB (2013) Transcriptional regulation of endothelial cell and vascular development. Circ Res 112(10):1380–1400CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Garcia MD, Larina IV (2014) Vascular development and hemodynamic force in the mouse yolk sac. Front Physiol 5:308PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Coultas L, Chawengsaksophak K, Rossant J (2005) Endothelial cells and VEGF in vascular development. Nature 438(7070):937–945CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Brindle NP, Saharinen P, Alitalo K (2006) Signaling and functions of angiopoietin −1 in vascular protection. Circ Res 98(8):1014–1023CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ursini-Siegel J, Beauchemin N (eds) (2016) The tumor microenvironment: methods and protocols. Meth Mol Biol 1458.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Translational MedicineThe Hospital for Sick ChildrenTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Department of Molecular GeneticsUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  3. 3.Genetics & Genome BiologyPeter Gilgan Centre for Research and Learning, The Hospital for Sick ChildrenTorontoCanada
  4. 4.Translational MedicineThe Hospital for Sick ChildrenTorontoCanada
  5. 5.Department of Molecular GeneticsUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  6. 6.Heart & Stroke/Richard Lewar Centres of Excellence in Cardiovascular ResearchTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations