Neutrophil Chemotaxis in One Droplet of Blood Using Microfluidic Assays
Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes in blood serving as the first line of host defense in tissue damage and infections. Upon activation by chemokines released from pathogens or injured tissues, neutrophils migrate through tissues toward sites of infections along the chemokine gradients, in a process named chemotaxis. Studying neutrophil chemotaxis using conventional tools, such as a transwell assay, often requires isolation of neutrophils from whole blood. This process requires milliliters of blood, trained personnel, and can easily alter the ability of chemotaxis. Microfluidics is an enabling technology for studying chemotaxis of neutrophils in vitro with high temporal and spatial resolution. In this chapter, we describe a procedure for probing human neutrophil chemotaxis directly in one droplet of whole blood, without neutrophil isolation, using microfluidic devices. The same devices can be applied to the study the chemotaxis of neutrophils from small animals, e.g., mice and rats.
Key wordsChemotaxis Microfluidics Neutrophils Speed Persistence Blood
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