Schizosaccharomyces pombe Biotechnological Applications in Winemaking
The traditional way of producing wine is through the use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in order to convert glucose and fructose into alcohol. In the case of red wines, after this alcoholic fermentation lactic bacteria Oenococus oeni is used to stabilize wine from a microbiological point of view by converting malic acid into lactic acid that it is not a microbiological substract. The yeast species Schizosaccharomyces pombe was traditionally considered spoilage yeast. Nevertheless, during the last decade it started to be used due to its unique malic acid deacidification ability to reduce the harsh acidity of wines from northern Europe, by converting malic acid to ethanol and CO2 without producing lactic acid as lactic bacteria does. Additionally, during the last years, S. pombe has started to be used to solve the problems of modern winemaking industry such as increasing food quality or food safety. Some of those new uses, different from its traditional malic acid deacidification, are: high autolytic polysaccharides release, gluconic acid reduction, urease activity that make impossible ethyl carbamate (toxic compound) formation, high pyruvic acid production, that is related to color improvement, and removing lactic bacteria subtracts while avoiding biogenic amines (toxic compounds such as histamine) formation.
Key wordsSchizosaccharomyces pombe Winemaking Malic acid Microbiological deacidification Malic acid Food safety Urea Ethyl carbamate Pyruvic acid Glycerol Ageing over lees Anthocyanins Pyranoanthocyanins Vitisin Fermentation Wine
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