Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Mice

  • Damon Klebe
  • Loretta Iniaghe
  • Sherrefa Burchell
  • Cesar Reis
  • Onat Akyol
  • Jiping Tang
  • John H. ZhangEmail author
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1717)


Intracerebral hemorrhage is the most devastating stroke subtype with high rates of mortality and morbidity. Furthermore, no clinically approved treatment exists that effectively increases survival or improves quality of life for survivors. Effective modeling is necessary to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms of intracerebral hemorrhage and evaluate potential therapeutic approaches. Rodent models are most utilized because of their cost-effectiveness, and because rodent brain development and structures are well documented. Herein, we describe two intracerebral hemorrhage mouse models: the autologous blood double-injection and collagenase infusion models.

Key words

Autologous blood Collagenase Intracerebral hemorrhage Stroke Mouse Animal model 


  1. 1.
    Mracsko E, Veltkamp R (2014) Neuroinflammation after intracerebral hemorrhage. Front Cell Neurosci 8:388CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Qureshi AI, Mendelow AD, Hanley DF (2009) Intracerebral haemorrhage. Lancet 373:1632–1644CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    van Asch CJ et al (2010) Incidence, case fatality, and functional outcome of intracerebral haemorrhage over time, according to age, sex, and ethnic origin: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Neurol 9:167–176CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hemphill JC 3rd et al (2015) Guidelines for the management of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. In: StrokeGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kreitzer N, Adeoye O (2013) An update on surgical and medical management strategies for intracerebral hemorrhage. Semin Neurol 33:462–467CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Xi G, Keep RF, Hoff JT (2006) Mechanisms of brain injury after intracerebral haemorrhage. Lancet Neurol 5:53–63CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Keep RF et al (2005) The deleterious or beneficial effects of different agents in intracerebral hemorrhage: think big, think small, or is hematoma size important? Stroke 36:1594–1596CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Davis SM et al (2006) Hematoma growth is a determinant of mortality and poor outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage. Neurology 66:1175–1181CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dowlatshahi D et al (2011) Defining hematoma expansion in intracerebral hemorrhage: relationship with patient outcomes. Neurology 76:1238–1244CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Brouwers HB, Greenberg SM (2013) Hematoma expansion following acute intracerebral hemorrhage. Cerebrovasc Dis 35:195–201CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Aronowski J, Zhao X (2011) Molecular pathophysiology of cerebral hemorrhage: secondary brain injury. Stroke 42(6):1781CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Belur PK et al (2013) Emerging experimental therapies for intracerebral hemorrhage: targeting mechanisms of secondary brain injury. Neurosurg Focus 34:E9CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Klebe D et al (2015) Modulating the immune response towards a neuroregenerative peri-injury milieu after cerebral hemorrhage. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 10(4):576–586CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ma Q et al (2011) History of preclinical models of intracerebral hemorrhage. Acta Neurochir Suppl 111:3–8CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Manaenko A et al (2011) Comparison of different preclinical models of intracerebral hemorrhage. Acta Neurochir Suppl 111:9–14CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Damon Klebe
    • 1
  • Loretta Iniaghe
    • 1
  • Sherrefa Burchell
    • 1
  • Cesar Reis
    • 1
  • Onat Akyol
    • 1
  • Jiping Tang
    • 1
  • John H. Zhang
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Physiology & PharmacologyLoma Linda UniversityLoma LindaUSA

Personalised recommendations