Advertisement

A Lateral Fluid Percussion Injury Model for Studying Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats

  • Paige S. Katz
  • Patricia E. MolinaEmail author
Protocol
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1717)

Abstract

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) diagnoses have increased in frequency during the past decade, becoming a silent epidemic. The pathophysiology of TBI involves pathophysiological processes affecting the brain, induced by traumatic biomechanical forces resulting in temporary impairment of neurological function. Preclinical models have been generated to recapitulate the mechanical, neuroinflammatory, and behavioral outcomes observed in the clinical setting. The lateral fluid percussion (LFP) model is the most extensively used and well-characterized model of nonpenetrating and nonischemic TBI. The model is reproducible and can be adjusted to produce a mild to moderate and severe injury, as reflected by mortality and return of reflexes, by adjusting the amount of force applied. The histopathological changes achieved with this model reproduce that seen in human TBI including focal contusion in the cortex, with accompanying intraparenchymal punctate hemorrhage, followed by inflammation and neuronal degeneration. This chapter describes the LFP model, which produces a mixed model of focal and diffuse brain injury that progresses over time affecting predominantly the cortical parenchyma.

Key words

Traumatic brain injury Fluid percussion injury Lateral Craniotomy 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to acknowledge Jesse Sulzer, MD, PhD; Sophie Teng, MD, PhD; Renata Impastato; Emily Rogers; and Kylie Mills who have contributed to the refinement of this model.

References

  1. 1.
    Faul M, Xu L, Wald M, Coronado V (2010) Traumatic brain injury in the United States, Emergency Department visits, hospitalizations and deaths 2002–2006. Center for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Atlanta, GACrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Feinstein A, Rapoport M (2000) Mild traumatic brain injury: the silent epidemic. Can J Public Health 91:325–326. 32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pellman EJ, Powell JW, Viano DC, Casson IR, Tucker AM, Feuer H, Lovell M, Waeckerle JF, Robertson DW (2004) Concussion in professional football, epidemiological features of game injuries and review of the literature—part 3. Neurosurgery 54:81–94. discussion -6CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Werner C, Engelhard K (2007) Pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury. Br J Anaesth 99:4–9CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Konrad C, Geburek AJ, Rist F, Blumenroth H, Fischer B, Husstedt I, Arolt V, Schiffbauer H, Lohmann H (2011) Long-term cognitive and emotional consequences of mild traumatic brain injury. Psychol Med 41(6):1197–1211CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gentleman SM, Leclercq PD, Moyes L, Graham DI, Smith C, Griffin WS, Nicoll JA (2004) Long-term intracerebral inflammatory response after traumatic brain injury. Forensic Sci Int 146:97–104CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Riggio S (2011) Traumatic brain injury and its neurobehavioral sequelae. Neurol Clin 29:35–47CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dixon CE, Lyeth BG, Povlishock JT, Findling RL, Hamm RJ, Marmarou A, Young HF, Hayes RL (1987) A fluid percussion model of experimental brain injury in the rat. J Neurosurg 67:110–119CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    McIntosh TK, Vink R, Noble L, Yamakami I, Fernyak S, Soares H, Faden AL (1989) Traumatic brain injury in the rat, characterization of a lateral fluid-percussion model. Neuroscience 28:233–244CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dixon CE, Clifton GL, Lighthall JW, Yaghmai AA, Hayes RL (1991) A controlled cortical impact model of traumatic brain injury in the rat. J Neurosci Methods 39:253–262CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Marmarou A, Foda MA, van den Brink W, Campbell J, Kita H, Demetriadou K (1994) A new model of diffuse brain injury in rats. Part I, pathophysiology and biomechanics. J Neurosurg 80:291–300CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Thompson HJ, Lifshitz J, Marklund N, Grady MS, Graham DI, Hovda DA, McIntosh TK (2005) Lateral fluid percussion brain injury, a 15-year review and evaluation. J Neurotrauma 22:42–75CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Povlishock JT (1993) Pathobiology of traumatically induced axonal injury in animals and man. Ann Emerg Med 22(6):980CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ling GSF, Lee EY, Kalehua AN (2001) Traumatic brain injury in the rat using the fluid-percussion model. Current protocols in neuroscience. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physiology, School of MedicineLouisiana State University Health Science CenterNew OrleansUSA

Personalised recommendations