Mouse Injury Model of Polytrauma and Shock

  • Juan C. Mira
  • Dina C. Nacionales
  • Tyler J. Loftus
  • Ricardo Ungaro
  • Brittany Mathias
  • Alicia M. Mohr
  • Lyle L. Moldawer
  • Philip A. EfronEmail author
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1717)


Severe injury and shock remain major sources of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Immunologic dysregulation following trauma contributes to these poor outcomes. Few, if any, therapeutic interventions have benefited these patients, and this is due to our limited understanding of the host response to injury and shock. The Food and Drug Administration requires preclinical animal studies prior to any interventional trials in humans; thus, animal models of injury and shock will remain the mainstay for trauma research. However, adequate animal models that reflect the severe response to trauma in both the acute and subacute phases have been limited. Here we describe a novel murine model of polytrauma and shock that combines hemorrhagic shock, cecectomy, long bone fracture, and soft-tissue damage. This model produces an equivalent Injury Severity Score associated with adverse outcomes in humans, and may better recapitulate the human leukocyte, cytokine, transcriptomic, and overall inflammatory response following injury and hemorrhagic shock.

Key words

Mouse Polytrauma Hemorrhage Inflammation Immunity 



J.C.M., T.L.M., and B.M. were supported by a training grant in burn and trauma research from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) (T32 GM-008721). This work was also supported by NIH Grants R01 GM-040586 and R01 GM-081923, awarded by the NIGMS. A.M.M. was supported by R01 GM-105893. In addition, P.A.E. was supported by P30 AG-028740 from the NIH National Institute on Aging and R01 GM113945 (NIGMS). Finally, P.A.E. and L.L.M. were supported by P50 GM-111152 (NIGMS).

Supplementary material

329202_1_En_1_MOESM1_ESM.tif (1.1 mb)
Image 1 Femoral artery cannulation (TIFF 1138 kb)
329202_1_En_1_MOESM2_ESM.tif (2.8 mb)
Image 2 Slowly aspirate blood to maintain MAP 30-40 (TIFF 2861 kb)
329202_1_En_1_MOESM3_ESM.tif (875 kb)
Image 3 Long bone fracture (TIFF 874 kb)
329202_1_En_1_MOESM4_ESM.tif (1.3 mb)
Image 4 Bone realignment (TIFF 1363 kb)
329202_1_En_1_MOESM5_ESM.tif (1.8 mb)
Image 5 Cecal clamp and ligation (TIFF 1799 kb)
329202_1_En_1_MOESM6_ESM.tif (2 mb)
Image 6 Cecum removal (TIFF 2012 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Juan C. Mira
    • 1
  • Dina C. Nacionales
    • 1
  • Tyler J. Loftus
    • 1
  • Ricardo Ungaro
    • 1
  • Brittany Mathias
    • 1
  • Alicia M. Mohr
    • 1
  • Lyle L. Moldawer
    • 1
  • Philip A. Efron
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryUniversity of Florida College of MedicineGainesvilleUSA
  2. 2.Department of Surgery, Shands HospitalUniversity of Florida College of MedicineGainesvilleUSA

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