Regulation of the Expression of Bacterial Multidrug Exporters by Two-Component Signal Transduction Systems
Bacterial multidrug exporters confer resistance to a wide range of antibiotics, dyes, and biocides. Recent studies have shown that there are many multidrug exporters encoded in bacterial genome. For example, it was experimentally identified that E. coli has at least 20 multidrug exporters. Because many of these multidrug exporters have overlapping substrate spectra, it is intriguing that bacteria, with their economically organized genomes, harbor such large sets of multidrug exporter genes. The key to understanding how bacteria utilize these multiple exporters lies in the regulation of exporter expression. Bacteria have developed signaling systems for eliciting a variety of adaptive responses to their environments. These adaptive responses are often mediated by two-component regulatory systems. In this chapter, the method to identify response regulators that affect expression of multidrug exporters is described.
Key wordsEscherichia coli Expression Multidrug exporters Response regulator Two-component signal transduction system
I gratefully acknowledge Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED), the Center of Innovation Program from Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JSPS), the International Joint Research Program from Osaka University, the Cooperative Research Program of “Network Joint Research Center for Materials and Devices”, the Nano-Macro Materials, Devices and System Research Alliance, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) for funding.