Concepts of All-Optical Physiology

Part of the Neuromethods book series (NM, volume 133)


All-optical physiology represents a methodological approach using light for both readout from and manipulation of individual neurons. This approach paves the way for a true, causal analysis of neuronal activity with single-cell and single action potential resolution and is therefore highly desirable for the investigation of neural networks. The following chapter addresses the general concepts of all-optical interrogations by shedding light on all critical steps needed for these experiments: Calcium-sensitive probes for readout, next-generation two-photon-excitable optogenetic actuators for manipulation and advanced optics for efficient stimulation of and real-time readout from individual neurons. The chapter also provides a step-by-step protocol on an all-optical strategy using an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) for photostimulation of opsin-expressing cells alongside simultaneous two-photon calcium imaging.

Key words

All-optical Two-photon optogenetics Optical parametric oscillator Synthetic and genetically encoded calcium indicators Optogenetic stimulation paradigms 


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© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Focus Program Translational Neurosciences and Institute for Microscopic Anatomy and NeurobiologyUniversity Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University MainzMainzGermany

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