Preparation of Membrane Fractions (Envelope, Thylakoids, Grana, and Stroma Lamellae) from Arabidopsis Chloroplasts for Quantitative Proteomic Investigations and Other Studies

  • Lucas Moyet
  • Daniel Salvi
  • Martino Tomizioli
  • Daphné Seigneurin-Berny
  • Norbert RollandEmail author
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1696)


Chloroplasts are semiautonomous organelles found in plants and protists. They are surrounded by a double membrane system, or envelope. These envelope membranes contain machineries to import nuclear-encoded proteins, and transporters for ions or metabolites, but are also essential for a range of plastid-specific metabolisms. The inner membrane surrounds a stroma, which is the site of the carbon chemistry of photosynthesis. Chloroplasts also contain an internal membrane system, or thylakoids, where the light phase of photosynthesis occurs. The thylakoid membranes themselves have a bipartite structure, consisting of grana stacks interconnected by stroma lamellae. These thylakoid membranes however form a continuous network that encloses a single lumenal space. Chloroplast-encoded or targeted proteins are thus addressed to various sub-compartments that turn out to be flexible systems and whose main functions can be modulated by alterations in the relative levels of their components. This article describes procedures developed to recover highly purified chloroplast membrane fractions (i.e., envelope, crude thylakoid membranes, as well as the two main thylakoid subdomains, grana and stroma lamellae), starting from Percoll-purified Arabidopsis chloroplasts. Immunological markers are also listed that can be used to assess the purity of these fractions and reveal specific contaminations by other plastid membrane compartments. The methods described here are compatible with chloroplast proteome dynamic studies relying on targeted quantitative proteomic investigations.

Key words

Chloroplast Chloroplast envelope Thylakoids Grana Stoma lamellae Cross-contamination Proteome 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lucas Moyet
    • 1
  • Daniel Salvi
    • 1
  • Martino Tomizioli
    • 1
  • Daphné Seigneurin-Berny
    • 1
  • Norbert Rolland
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Laboratoire de Physiologie Cellulaire & Végétale, BIG, CNRS, Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CEA, INRAGrenoble cedex 9France

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