Bacteriophages pp 197-215 | Cite as

Essential Steps in Characterizing Bacteriophages: Biology, Taxonomy, and Genome Analysis

  • Ramy Karam AzizEmail author
  • Hans-Wolfgang Ackermann
  • Nicola K. Petty
  • Andrew M. Kropinski
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1681)


Because of the rise in antimicrobial resistance there has been a significant increase in interest in phages for therapeutic use. Furthermore, the cost of sequencing phage genomes has decreased to the point where it is being used as a teaching tool for genomics. Unfortunately, the quality of the descriptions of the phage and its annotation frequently are substandard. The following chapter is designed to help people working on phages, particularly those new to the field, to accurately describe their newly isolated viruses.

Key words

Annotation CDS Electron microscopy Genomes Locus tag ORF Phage Promoter Software Taxonomy Terminator 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ramy Karam Aziz
    • 1
    Email author
  • Hans-Wolfgang Ackermann
    • 2
  • Nicola K. Petty
    • 3
  • Andrew M. Kropinski
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of PharmacyCairo UniversityCairoEgypt
  2. 2.Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infectiology, Faculty of MedicineUniversité LavalQuebecCanada
  3. 3.The ithree InstituteUniversity of Technology SydneySydneyAustralia
  4. 4.Departments of Food Science, Molecular and Cellular Biology, and PathobiologyUniversity of GuelphGuelphCanada

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