Skip to main content

Procedures of Necropsy and Tissue Sampling

  • 2989 Accesses

Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB,volume 1641)

Abstract

Necropsy is a major step of most studies using laboratory animals. During necropsy, tissue and organ noticeable grossly changes should be recorded and critical tissue samples may be stored for the subsequent evaluation. It is therefore important that the personnel in charge of this key experimental step to be adequately trained and aware of the study endpoints.

Key words

  • Necropsy
  • Histology
  • Histopathology
  • Macroscopy
  • Sampling
  • Rodents
  • Mouse
  • Rat

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Protocol
USD   49.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-7172-5_3
  • Chapter length: 30 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   129.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-1-4939-7172-5
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   169.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   169.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

Springer Nature is developing a new tool to find and evaluate Protocols. Learn more

References

  1. Olds RJ, Olds JR (1979) A color atlas of the rat-dissection guide. Wolfe Medical Publications Ltd, London

    Google Scholar 

  2. Feldman DB, Seely JC (1988) Necropsy guide: rodents & the rabbit. CRC, Boca Raton

    Google Scholar 

  3. Walker WF Jr, Homberger DG (1998) Anatomy and dissection of the rat. W.H. Freeman and Company, New York

    Google Scholar 

  4. Bono CD, Elwell MR, Rogers K (2000) Necropsy techniques with standard collection and trimming of tissues. In: Krinke GJ (ed) The laboratory rat. Academic, San Diego, pp 569–600

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  5. Relyea MJ, Miller J, Boggess D, Sundberg JP (2000) Necropsy methods for laboratory mice: biological characterization of a new mutation. In: Sundberg JP (ed) Systematic approach of Mouse mutations. CRC, Boca Raton, pp 57–89

    Google Scholar 

  6. EULEP, European Late Effects Project. Covelli’s necropsy protocol & pictures. http://eulep.pdn.cam.ac.uk/Necropsy_of_the_Mouse/printable.php

  7. Cook M (1965) Anatomy of the laboratory mouse, Academic (Web version). http://www.informatics.jax.org/cookbook/

  8. Krinke GJ (ed) (2000) The laboratory rat. Academic, San Diego

    Google Scholar 

  9. Ruehl-Fehlert C, Kittel B, Morawietz G, Deslex P, Keenan C, Mahrt CR, Nolte T, Robinson M, Stuart BP, Deschl U (2003) Revised guides for organ sampling and trimming in rats and mice—part 1. Exp Toxicol Pathol 55:91–106

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Kittel B, Ruehl-Fehlert C, Morawietz G, Klapwijk J, Elwell MR, Lenz B, O’Sullivan G, Roth DR, Wadsworth PF (2004) Revised guides for organ sampling and trimming in rats and mice—part 2. Exp Toxicol Pathol 55:413–431

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Morawietz G, Ruehl-Fehlert C, Kittel B, Bube A, Keane K, Halm S, Heuser A, Hellmann J (2004) Revised guides for organ sampling and trimming in rats and mice—part 3. Exp Toxicol Pathol 55:433–449

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Formaldehyde: health-based recommended occupational exposure limit. Dutch Expert Committee on occupational standards (DECOS): Health Council of The Netherlands (Gezondheidsraad) vol. 02 osh (2003) 124

    Google Scholar 

  13. Woods AE, Ellis RC (1994) Laboratory histopathology, a complete reference, vols I and II. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh

    Google Scholar 

  14. Fox JG, Cohen BJ, Loew FM (eds) (1984) Laboratory animal medicine. Academic, Orlando

    Google Scholar 

  15. Bush RK, Stave GM (2003) Laboratory animal allergy: an update. ILAR J 44(1):28–51

    CrossRef  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Figler N (2004) Laboratory animal allergies: overview of causation and prevention. Lab Anim 33(10):25–27

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  17. Sellers RS, Morton D, Michael B, Roome N, Johnson JK, Yano BL, Perry R, Schafer K (2007) Society of toxicologic pathology position paper: organ weight recommendations for toxicology studies. Toxicol Pathol 35(5):751–755

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. Leblanc B (2000) Pathology and tissue sampling protocols for Rodent carcinogenicity studies, time for revision. Toxicol Pathol 28:628–633

    CrossRef  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. Bregman CL, Adler RR, Morton DG, Regan KS, Yano BL (2003) Recommended tissue list for histopathologic examination in repeat-dose toxicity and carcinogenicity studies: a proposal of the Society of Toxicologic Pathology (STP). Toxicol Pathol 31(2):252–253

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. Russo IH, Tewari M, Russo J (1989) Morphology and development of the rat mammary gland. In: Jones TC, Mohr U, Hunt RD (eds) Monographs on pathology of laboratory animals. Integument and mammary glands. Springer, Berlin, pp 233–252

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  21. Boorman GA, Wilson JT, Van Zwieten MJ, Wilson JT, Eustis SL (1990) Mammary gland. In: Boorman GA, Eustis SL, Elwell MR, Montgomery CA, MacKenzie WF (eds) Pathology of the Fischer rat. Reference and atlas. Academic, San Diego, pp 295–313

    Google Scholar 

  22. Van den Broeck W, Derore A, Simoens P (2006) Anatomy and nomenclature of murine lymph nodes: descriptive study and nomenclatory standardization in BALB/cAnNCrl mice. J Immunol Methods 312(1–2):12–19

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. Hebel R, Stromberg MW (1986) Anatomy and embryology of the laboratory rat. BioMed Verlag, Worthsee

    Google Scholar 

  24. Botts S, Jokinen M, Gaillard ET, Elwell MR, Mann PC (1999) Salivary, Harderian, and lacrimal glands. In: Maronpot RR (ed) Pathology of the mouse. Cache River Press, Boca Raton, pp 49–79

    Google Scholar 

  25. Dijkstra CD, Veerman AJP (1990) Spleen. Structure and function. Normal anatomy, histology, ultrastructure, rat. In: Jones TC, Mohr U, Hunt RD, Ward JM, Burek JD (eds) Monographs on pathology of laboratory animals. Hemopoietic system. Springer, Berlin, pp 185–193

    Google Scholar 

  26. Popesko P, Rajtova V, Horak J (1992) A colour atlas of the anatomy of small laboratory animals. Vol 2. Rat, mouse, golden hamster. Wolfe Publishing, Bratislava, p 89

    Google Scholar 

  27. Brown HR, Hardisty JF (1990) Oral cavity, esophagus and stomach. In: Boorman GA, Eustis SL, Elwell MR, Montgomery CA, MacKenzie WF (eds) Pathology of the Fischer rat. Reference and atlas. Academic, San Diego, pp 9–30

    Google Scholar 

  28. Matsukura N, Asano G (1997) Anatomy, histology, ultrastructure, stomach, rat. In: Jones TC, Popp JA, Mohr U (eds) Monographs on pathology of laboratory animals. Digestive system, 2nd edn. Springer, Berlin, pp 343–350

    Google Scholar 

  29. Elwell MR, MCConnell EE (1990) Small and large intestine. In: Boorman GA, Eustis SL, Elwell MR, Montgomery CA, MacKenzie WF (eds) Pathology of the Fischer rat. Reference and atlas. Academic, San Diego, pp 43–61

    Google Scholar 

  30. Moolenbeek C, Ruitenberg EJ (1981) The “Swiss roll”: a simple technique for histological studies of the Rodent intestine. Lab Anim 15:57–59

    CrossRef  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. Soul NW (1987) Gut rolls: a better technique for GI tumor assessment. Toxicol Pathol 15:374

    Google Scholar 

  32. Williams JM, Duckworth CA, Vowell K, Burkitt MD, Pritchard DM (2016) Intestinal preparation techniques for histological analysis in the mouse. Curr Protoc Mouse Biol 6:148–168

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. Paget EG, Thomson R (1979) Standard operating procedures in pathology. MTP Press, Lancaster, pp 134–139

    Google Scholar 

  34. Nyska A, Maronpot RR (1999) Adrenal Gland. In: Maronpot RR, Boorman GA, Gaul BW (eds) Pathology of the mouse. Reference and atlas. Cache River Press, Vienna, pp 509–536

    Google Scholar 

  35. Liebelt AG (1998) Unique features of anatomy, histology and ultrastructure, kidney, mouse. In: Jones TC, Hard GC, Mohr U (eds) Monographs on pathology of laboratory animals. Urinary system, 2nd edn. Springer, Berlin, pp 37–57

    Google Scholar 

  36. Khan KNM, Alden CL (2002) Kidney. In: Haschek WM, Rousseaux CG, Wallig MA (eds) Handbook of toxicologic pathology, vol. 2, 2nd edn. Academic, San Diego, pp 255–336

    Google Scholar 

  37. Cohen SM, Wanibuchi H, Fukushima S (2002) Lower urinary tract. In: Haschek WM, Rousseaux CG, Wallig MA (eds) Handbook of toxicologic pathology, vol. 2, 2nd edn. Academic, San Diego, pp 337–362

    Google Scholar 

  38. Ferm VH (1987) Embryology and comparative anatomy, Rodent reproductive tract. In: Jones TC, Mohr U, Hunt RD (eds) Monographs on pathology of laboratory animals. Genital system. Springer, Berlin, pp 3–7

    Google Scholar 

  39. Creasy DM, Foster PMD (2001) Male reproductive system. In: Haschek WM, Rousseaux CG, Wallig MA (eds) Handbook of toxicologic pathology, vol. 2, 2nd edn. Academic, San Diego, pp 785–846

    Google Scholar 

  40. Lanning LL, Creasy DM, Chapin RE, Mann PC, Barlow NJ, Regan KS, Goodman DG (2002) Recommended approaches for the evaluation of testicular and epididymal toxicity. Toxicol Pathol 30:507–520

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  41. Boorman GA, Chapin RE, Mitsumori K (1990) Testis and epididymis. In: Boorman GA, Eustis SL, Elwell MR, Montgomery CA, MacKenzie WF (eds) Pathology of the Fischer rat. Reference and atlas. Academic, San Diego, pp 405–418

    Google Scholar 

  42. Lee CH, Holland JM (1987) Anatomy, histology, and ultrastructure (correlation with function), prostate, rat. In: Jones TC, Mohr U, Hunt RD (eds) Monographs on pathology of laboratory animals. Genital system. Springer, Berlin, pp 239–251

    Google Scholar 

  43. Boorman GA, Elwell MR, Mitsumori K (1990) Male accessory sex glands, penis, and scrotum. In: Boorman GA, Eustis SL, Elwell MR, Montgomery CA, MacKenzie WF (eds) Pathology of the Fischer rat. Reference and atlas. Academic, San Diego, pp 419–428

    Google Scholar 

  44. Heindel JJ, Chapin RE (eds) (1993) Methods in reproductive toxicology: female reproductive toxicology, vol 3B. Academic, Orlando

    Google Scholar 

  45. Yuan YD, Foley GL (2002) Female reproductive system. In: Haschek WM, Rousseaux CG, Wallig MA (eds) Handbook of toxicologic pathology, vol. 2, 2nd edn. Academic, San Diego, pp 847–894

    Google Scholar 

  46. Piper RC (1981) Morphological evaluation of the heart in toxicologic studies. In: Balazc T (ed) Cardiac toxicology, vol 3. CRC, Boca Raton, pp 111–136

    Google Scholar 

  47. Van Vleet JF, Ferrans VJ, Herman E (2002) Cardiovascular and skeletal muscle system. In: Haschek WM, Rousseaux CG, Wallig MA (eds) Handbook of toxicologic pathology, vol 2, 2nd edn. Academic, San Diego, pp 363–455

    Google Scholar 

  48. Djikstra CD, Sminia T (1990) Thymus. Structure and function. Normal anatomy, histology, immunohistology, ultrastructure, rat. In: Jones TC, Mohr U, Hunt RD, Ward JM, Burek JD (eds) Monographs on pathology of laboratory animals. Hemopoietic system. Springer, Berlin, pp 249–256

    Google Scholar 

  49. Kittel B, Ernst H, Kamino K (1996) Anatomy, histology and ultrastructure, parathyroid, mouse. In: Jones TC, Capen CC, Mohr U (eds) Monographs on pathology of laboratory animals. Endocrine system, 2nd edn. Springer, Berlin, pp 328–329

    Google Scholar 

  50. Kittel B, Ernst H, Kamino K (1996) Anatomy, histology and ultrastructure, parathyroid, rat. In: Jones TC, Capen CC, Mohr U (eds) Monographs on pathology of laboratory animals. Endocrine system, 2nd edn. Springer, Berlin, pp 330–332

    Google Scholar 

  51. Gopinath C, Prentice DE, Lewis DJ (1987) The respiratory system. In: Atlas of experimental toxicological pathology. MTP Press, Lancaster, pp 22–42

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  52. Plopper CG (1996) Structure and function of the lung. In: Jones TC, Dungworth DL, Mohr U (eds) Monographs on pathology of laboratory animals. Respiratory system, 2nd edn. Springer, Berlin, pp 135–150

    Google Scholar 

  53. Cassella JP, Hay J, Lawson SJ (1997) The rat nervous system. Wiley, Chichester

    Google Scholar 

  54. Dorman DC, Brenneman KA, Bolon B (2002) Nervous system. In: Haschek WM, Rousseaux CG, Wallig MA (eds) Handbook of toxicologic pathology, vol 2, 2nd edn. Academic, San Diego, pp 509–537

    Google Scholar 

  55. Mahler JF, Elwell MR (1999) Pituitary Gland. In: Maronpot RR, Boorman GA, Gaul BW (eds) Pathology of the mouse. Reference and atlas. Cache River Press, Vienna, pp 491–507

    Google Scholar 

  56. Whiteley HE, Peiffer RL (2002) The eye. In: Haschek WM, Rousseaux CG, Wallig MA (eds) Handbook of toxicologic pathology, vol 2, 2nd edn. Academic, San Diego, pp 539–584

    Google Scholar 

  57. Popp JA, Monteiro-Riviere NA (1985) Macroscopic, microscopic, and ultrastructural anatomy of the nasal cavity, rat. In: Jones TC, Dungworth DL, Mohr U (eds) Monographs on pathology of laboratory animals. Respiratory system, 2nd edn. Springer, Berlin, pp 3–10

    Google Scholar 

  58. Boorman GA, Morgan KT, Uriah LC (1990) Nose, larynx and trachea. In: Boorman GA, Eustis SL, Elwell MR, Montgomery CA, MacKenzie WF (eds) Pathology of the Fischer rat. Reference and atlas. Academic, San Diego, pp 315–337

    Google Scholar 

  59. Copeland-Haines D, Eustis SL (1990) Specialized sebaceous glands. In: Boorman GA, Eustis SL, Elwell MR, Montgomery CA, MacKenzie WF (eds) Pathology of the Fischer rat. Reference and atlas. Academic, San Diego, pp 279–294

    Google Scholar 

  60. MCGavin MD (1991) Procedures for morphological studies of skeletal muscle, rat, mouse, and hamster. In: Jones TC, Mohr U, Hunt RD (eds) Monographs on pathology of laboratory animals. Cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems. Springer, Berlin, pp 101–108

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  61. Valli VE, Villeneuve DC, Reed B et al (1990) Evaluation of blood and bone marrow, rat. In: Jones TC, Mohr U, Hunt RD, Ward JM, Burek JD (eds) Monographs on pathology of laboratory animals. Hemopoietic system. Springer, Berlin, pp 9–26

    Google Scholar 

  62. Woodard JC, Burkhardt JE, Lee W (2002) Bones and joints. In: Haschek WM, Rousseaux CG, Wallig MA (eds) Handbook of toxicologic pathology, vol 2, 2nd edn. Academic, San Diego, pp 457–508

    Google Scholar 

  63. Latendresse JR, Warbrittion AR, Jonassen H, Creasy DM (2002) Fixation of testes and eyes using a modified Davidson’s fluid: comparison with Bouin’s fluid and conventional Davidson’s fluid. Toxicol Pathol 30:524–533

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  64. Hoff J (2000) Methods of blood collection. J Lab Anim 29(10):47–53

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Mohamed Slaoui D.V.M., D.E.S.A.P.V. .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2017 Springer Science+Business Media LLC

About this protocol

Cite this protocol

Fiette, L., Slaoui, M., Bauchet, AL. (2017). Procedures of Necropsy and Tissue Sampling. In: Gautier, JC. (eds) Drug Safety Evaluation. Methods in Molecular Biology, vol 1641. Humana Press, New York, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-7172-5_3

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-7172-5_3

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Humana Press, New York, NY

  • Print ISBN: 978-1-4939-7170-1

  • Online ISBN: 978-1-4939-7172-5

  • eBook Packages: Springer Protocols