Protein–Protein Interactions: Cytology Two-Hybrid

  • Krishnamohan AtmakuriEmail author
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1615)


Identifying protein–protein interactions between the machine components of bacterial secretion systems and their cognate substrates is essential. Establishing which component and substrate interactions are direct or indirect further facilitates (1) advancing the architecture and assembly of the machines and (2) understanding the substrates’ translocation mechanistics. Currently, though biochemical means exist for identifying such direct interactions, they primarily remain in vitro and are quite labor intensive. Thus, adopting genetic approaches to help visualize these interactions in vivo is quick and advantageous. Here I describe bimolecular fluorescence complementation and cytology-based two-hybrid assays that could easily be adopted to understand the bacterial secretions systems.

Key words

Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) Cytology-based two-hybrid (C2H) Nonfluorescing halves Protein–protein interactions Retargeting fluorescence 



I thank Peter (Prof. Peter J. Christie) and Bill (Prof. William Margolin), both from the Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, Texas, USA. Peter was instrumental in mentoring and providing an excellent opportunity to train as a post-doc in his lab and Bill provided a lot of help, guidance, and training in fluorescent microscopy.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Translational Health Science and Technology InstituteNCR Biotech Science ClusterFaridabadIndia

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