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Epidemiological Surveillance of Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers With Emphasis on Clinical Virology

Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB,volume 1604)

Abstract

This article will outline surveillance approaches for viral hemorrhagic fevers. Specific methods for surveillance of clinical samples will be emphasized. Separate articles will describe methods for surveillance of rodent-borne viruses (roboviruses) and arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses). Since the appearance of hantaviruses and arenaviruses in the Americas, more than 30 different species in each group have been established, and therefore they have become the most frequently emerging viruses. Flaviviruses such as yellow fever and dengue viruses, although easier to recognize, are also more widely spread and therefore considered a very important public health issue, particularly for under-developed countries. On the other hand, marburgviruses and ebolaviruses, previously thought to be restricted to the African continent, have recently been shown to be more global. For many of these agents virus isolation has been a challenging task: trapping the specific vectors (mosquitoes and ticks), and reservoirs (rodents and bats), or obtaining the samples from suspected clinical human cases demands special protective gear, uncommon devices (respirators), special facilities (BSL-3 and 4), and particular skills to recognize the slow and inapparent cytopathic effects in cell culture. Alternatively, serological and molecular approaches have been very helpful in discovering and describing newly emerging viruses in many areas where the previous resources are unavailable. Unfortunately, in many cases, detailed studies have been performed only after outbreaks occur, and then active surveillance is needed to prevent viral dissemination in human populations.

Key words

  • Zoonotic viruses
  • Clinical samples
  • Hemorrhagic fevers
  • Diagnostics

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Correspondence to Juan David Rodas Ph.D. .

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Montoya-Ruiz, C., Rodas, J.D. (2018). Epidemiological Surveillance of Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers With Emphasis on Clinical Virology. In: Salvato, M. (eds) Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses. Methods in Molecular Biology, vol 1604. Humana Press, New York, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-6981-4_4

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