All-Electrical Graphene DNA Sensor Array

Protocol
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1572)

Abstract

Electrical sensing of biomolecules has been an important pursuit due to the label-free operation and chip-scale construct such sensing modality can enable. In particular, electrical biomolecular sensors based on nanomaterials such as semiconductor nanowires, carbon nanotubes, and graphene have demonstrated high sensitivity, which in the case of nanowires and carbon nanotubes can surpass typical optical detection sensitivity. Among these nanomaterials, graphene is well suited for a practical candidate for implementing a large-scale array of biomolecular sensors, as its two-dimensional morphology is readily compatible with industry standard top-down fabrication techniques. In our recent work published in 2014 Nature Communications, we demonstrated these benefits by creating DNA sensor arrays from chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene. The present chapter, which is a review of this recent work, outlines procedures demonstrating the use of individual graphene sites of the array in dual roles––electrophoretic electrodes for site specific probe DNA immobilization and field effect transistor (FET) sensors for detection of target DNA hybridization. The 100 fM detection sensitivity achieved in 7 out of 8 graphene FET sensors in the array combined with the alternative use of the graphene channels as electrophoretic electrodes for probe deposition represent steps toward creating an all-electrical multiplexed DNA array.

Key words

DNA sensor array DNA detection Graphene Electrophoresis Biomolecule sensing Bioelectronics 

References

  1. 1.
    Cui Y, Wei Q, Park H, Lieber CM (2001) Nanowire nanosensors for highly sensitive and selective detection of biological and chemical species. Science 293:1289–1292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zheng G, Patolsky F, Cui Y, Wang WU, Lieber CM (2005) Multiplexed electrical detection of cancer markers with nanowire sensor arrays. Nat Biotechnol 23:1294–1301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chen RJ et al (2003) Noncovalent functionalization of carbon nanotubes for highly specific electronic biosensors. Proc Natl Acad Sci 100:4984–4989CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sorgenfrei S et al (2011) Label-free single-molecule detection of DNA-hybridization kinetics with a carbon nanotube field-effect transistor. Nat Nanotechnol 6:126–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mannoor MS et al (2012) Graphene-based wireless bacteria detection on tooth enamel. Nat Commun 3:763CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Park J, Nam S, Lee M, Lieber CM (2012) Synthesis of monolithic graphene-graphite integrated electronics. Nat Mater 11:120–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Jiang S et al (2013) Real-time electrical detection of nitric oxide in biological systems with sub-nanomolar sensitivity. Nat Commun 4:2225Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Liu Y, Dong X, Chen P (2012) Biological and chemical sensors based on graphene materials. Chem Soc Rev 41:2283–2307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hahm J, Lieber CM (2004) Direct ultrasensitive electrical detection of DNA and DNA sequence variations using nanowire nanosensors. Nano Lett 4:51–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Stern E et al (2007) Label-free immunodetection with CMOS-compatible semiconducting nanowires. Nature 445:519–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    MAQC Consortium (2006) The MicroArray Quality Control (MAQC) project shows inter- and intraplatform reproducibility of gene expression measurements. Nat Biotechnol 24:1151–1161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dalma-Weiszhausz DD, Warrington J, Tanimoto EY, Miyada CG (2006) The Affymetrix GeneChip® platform: an overview. Methods Enzymol 410:3–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    The AffyMetrix DNA Microarray website (n.d.). Available on http://www.affymetrix.com. Accessed 9 Dec 2015
  14. 14.
    Novoselov KS et al (2012) A roadmap for graphene. Nature 490:192–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hess LH, Seifert M, Garrido JA (2013) Graphene Transistors for Bioelectronics. Proc IEEE 101:1780–1792CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Colombo L, Wallace RM, Ruoff RS (2013) Graphene growth and device integration. Proc IEEE 101:1536–1556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Xu G et al (2014) Electrophoretic and field-effect graphene for all-electrical DNA array technology. Nat Commun 5:4866CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ohno Y, Maehashi K, Yamashiro Y, Matsumoto K (2009) Electrolyte-gated graphene field-effect transistors for detecting pH and protein adsorption. Nano Lett 9:3318–3322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dong X, Shi Y, Huang W, Chen P, Li L (2010) Electrical detection of DNA hybridization with single-base specificity using transistors based on CVD-Grown graphene sheets. Adv Mater 22:1649–1653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chen T et al (2013) Label-free detection of DNA hybridization using transistors based on CVD grown graphene. Biosens Bioelectron 41:103–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Star A et al (2006) Label-free detection of DNA hybridization using carbon nanotube network field-effect transistors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:921–926CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Li X et al (2009) Transfer of large-area graphene films for high-performance transparent conductive electrodes. Nano Lett 9:4359–4363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Reina A et al (2009) Large area. Few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical capor deposition. Nano Lett 9:30–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Poghossian A, Cherstvy A, Ingebrandt S, Offenhäusser A, Schöning MJ (2005) Possibilities and limitations of label-free detection of DNA hybridization with field-effect-based devices. Sens Actuators B 111–112:470–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kataoka-Hamai C, Miyahara Y (2011) Label-free detection of DNA by field-effect devices. IEEE J Sensors 11:3153–3160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Stern E et al (2007) Importance of the Debye screening length on nanowire field effect transistor sensors. Nano Lett 7:3405–3409CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Engineering and Applied SciencesHarvard UniversityCambridgeUSA
  2. 2.Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringUniversity of MassachusettsAmherstUSA

Personalised recommendations