Heat-Induced Antigen Retrieval in Immunohistochemistry: Mechanisms and Applications

  • Shuji YamashitaEmail author
  • Osamu Katsumata
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1560)


Heat-induced antigen retrieval (HIAR) is an essential technique for current immunohistochemistry. We describe the mechanisms of HIAR and its protocols for formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens and frozen sections, which are the most popular materials for immunohistochemistry using light microscopy. In addition, we describe the antigen retrieval method for highly masked epitopes and double immunostaining using the horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled antibody method and immunofluorescence method in this chapter.

Key words

Heat-induced antigen retrieval Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues Frozen tissues Highly masked epitopes HRP-labeled antibody method Immunofluorescence method Double immunostaining 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pathology, School of MedicineKeio UniversityTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Department of AnatomyKitasato University School of MedicineKanagawaJapan

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