Peripheral-Nerve and Spinal-Cord Regeneration in Mice Using Hair-Follicle-Associated Pluripotent (HAP) Stem Cells

  • Yasuyuki Amoh
  • Kensei Katsuoka
  • Robert M. HoffmanEmail author
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1453)


Nestin, a neural stem cell marker protein, is expressed in hair follicle cells above the bulge area. These nestin-positive hair follicle-associated-pluripotent (HAP) stem cells are negative for the keratinocyte marker K15 and can differentiate into neurons, glia, keratinocytes, smooth muscle cells, cardiac muscle cells, and melanocytes in vitro. HAP stem cells are positive for the stem cell marker CD34, as well as K15-negative, suggesting their relatively undifferentiated state. HAP stem cells promoted the functional recovery of injured peripheral nerves and the spinal cord. HAP stem cells differentiated into glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive Schwann cells when implanted in severed sciatic nerves and spinal cords in mice. These results suggest that HAP stem cells provide an important accessible, autologous source of adult stem cells for regenerative medicine, that have critical advantages over ES and iPS stem cells.

Key words

Hair follicle Bulge area Nestin Stem cell Pluripotent Differentiation Nerve Spinal cord Repair 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yasuyuki Amoh
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Kensei Katsuoka
    • 1
  • Robert M. Hoffman
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of DermatologyKitasato University School of MedicineSagamiharaJapan
  2. 2.AntiCancer, Inc.San DiegoUSA
  3. 3.Department of SurgeryUniversity of California, San DiegoSan DiegoUSA

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