Regulation of Activation Induced Deaminase (AID) by Estrogen

  • Siim PauklinEmail author
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1366)


Regulation of Activation Induced Deaminase (AID) by the hormone estrogen has important implications for understanding adaptive immune responses as well as the involvement of AID in autoimmune diseases and tumorigenesis. This chapter describes the general laboratory techniques for analyzing AID expression and activity induced by estrogen, focusing on the isolation and preparation of cells for hormone treatment and the subsequent analysis of AID responsiveness to estrogen at the RNA level and for determining the regulation of AID activity via estrogen by analyzing Ig switch circle transcripts and mutations in switch region loci.

Key words

Activation induced deaminase AID Estrogen Adaptive immune responses Splenic B-cells Ig switch circle transcripts Somatic hypermutations Autoimmune diseases 



S.P. was supported by FEBS long-term fellowship.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Anne McLaren Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine, Wellcome Trust-Medical Research Council Cambridge Stem Cell InstituteUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeUK

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