GPER/GPR30 Knockout Mice: Effects of GPER on Metabolism

  • Geetanjali Sharma
  • Eric R. Prossnitz
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1366)


Endogenous estrogens, predominantly 17β-estradiol (E2), mediate various diverse effects throughout the body in both normal physiology and disease. Actions include development (including puberty) and reproduction as well as additional effects throughout life in the metabolic, endocrine, musculoskeletal, nervous, cardiovascular, and immune systems. The actions of E2 have traditionally been attributed to the classical nuclear estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ) that largely mediate transcriptional/genomic activities. However, more recently the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor GPER/GPR30 has become recognized as an essential mediator of certain, and particularly rapid, signaling events in response to E2. Murine genetic knockout (KO) models represent an important approach to understand the mechanisms of E2 action in physiology and disease. Studies of GPER KO mice over the last years have revealed functions for GPER in the regulation of obesity, insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, among other areas of (patho)physiology. This chapter focuses on methods for the evaluation of metabolic parameters in vivo and ex vivo with an emphasis on glucose homeostasis and metabolism through the use of glucose and insulin tolerance tests, pancreatic islet and adipocyte isolation and characterization.

Key words

Estrogen GPER GPR30 Metabolism Obesity Adipose Adipocyte Insulin resistance Insulin sensitivity Glucose tolerance Type 2 diabetes 



The authors have been supported by NIH grants CA116662, CA127731, and CA163890 (ERP) and the UNM Cancer Center (CA118100).

Disclosures: E.R.P. is an inventor on US patents assigned to the University of New Mexico for GPER-selective ligands and imaging agents.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Internal Medicine and UNM Comprehensive Cancer CenterUniversity of New Mexico Health Sciences CenterAlbuquerqueUSA

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