GPER Mediates Non-Genomic Effects of Estrogen

  • Marco Pupo
  • Marcello Maggiolini
  • Anna Maria Musti
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1366)


Estrogens are important modulators of a broad spectrum of physiological functions in humans. However, despite their beneficial actions, a number of lines of evidence correlate the sustained exposure to exogenous estrogen with increased risk of the onset of various cancers. Mainly these steroid hormones induce their effects by binding and activating estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ). These receptors belong to the family of ligand-regulated transcription factors, and upon activation they regulate the expression of different target genes by binding directly to specific DNA sequences. On the other hand, in recent years it has become clear that the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 30 (GPR30/GPER) is able to mediate non-genomic action of estrogens in different cell contexts. In particular, GPER has been shown to specifically bind estrogens, and in turn to functionally cross-react with diverse cell signaling systems such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway, the Notch signaling pathway and the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) pathway. In this chapter we will present some of the different experimental techniques currently used to demonstrate the functional role of GPER in mediating non-genomic actions of estrogens, such as the dual luciferase assay, assessment of the involvement of GPER in the stimulation of cell migration in breast cancer cell lines and in cancer-associated fibroblasts, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Overall, the experimental procedures described herein represent key instruments for assessing the biological role of GPER in mediating non-genomic signals of estrogen.

Key words

Estrogen Breast cancer GPR30/GPER Non-genomic signaling MAPK phosphorylation 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marco Pupo
    • 1
  • Marcello Maggiolini
    • 1
  • Anna Maria Musti
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Pharmacy, Health and Nutritional SciencesUniversity of CalabriaRendeItaly
  2. 2.Institute for Clinical NeurobiologyUniversity of WürzburgWürzburgGermany

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