Do Mitochondria Play a Central Role in Stress-Induced Somatic Embryogenesis?

  • Birgit Arnholdt-Schmitt
  • Carla Ragonezi
  • Hélia Cardoso
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1359)


This review highlights a four-step rational for the hypothesis that mitochondria play an upstream central role for stress-induced somatic embryogenesis (SE): (1) Initiation of SE is linked to programmed cell death (PCD) (2) Mitochondria are crucially connected to cell death (3) SE is challenged by stress per se (4) Mitochondria are centrally linked to plant stress response and its management. Additionally the review provides a rough perspective for the use of mitochondrial-derived functional marker (FM) candidates to improve SE efficiency. It is proposed to apply SE systems as phenotyping tool for identifying superior genotypes with high general plasticity under severe plant stress conditions.

Key words

Somatic embryogenesis Mitochondria PCD Severe stress Cell reprogramming Phenotype plasticity Phenotyping tool Genotype selection 



This work was supported by FEDER Funds through the Operational Program for competitiveness Factors—COMPETE, and National Funds through FCT under the Strategic Project PEst-OE/AGR/UI0115/2014 and the project FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-009638 (PTDC/EBB-BIO/099268/2008). The authors are thankful to the Portuguese FCT—Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) for the support given under the program POPH—Programa Operacional Potencial Humano (Ciência 2008: C2008-UE/ICAM/06) and also to ICAAM for the support given to H.C. (BPD UÉvora ICAAM INCENTIVO AGR UI0115) and C.R. (BTI_Uevora_ICAAM_PTDC_EBB-BIO_99268_2008).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Birgit Arnholdt-Schmitt
    • 1
  • Carla Ragonezi
    • 1
  • Hélia Cardoso
    • 1
  1. 1.EU Marie Curie ChairICAAM, IIFA, Universidade de ÉvoraÉvoraPortugal

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