Identification and Characterization of Carbohydrate-Based Adjuvants

  • Timo JohannssenEmail author
  • Bernd LepeniesEmail author
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1331)


Modern vaccines such as recombinant proteins or nucleic acids are usually of pure origin, enhancing their tolerability and overall safety. However, this purity often renders them less immunogenic, creating the need for potent adjuvants. Carbohydrates are promising candidates to fulfill this role as they enable direct targeting of dendritic cells and modulation of adaptive immunity. C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) comprise a major group of carbohydrate binding receptors. As they are predominantly expressed by cells of innate immunity, CLR targeting can enhance or dampen early stages of cytokine secretion and antigen presentation, thus modulate the activation and differentiation of T cells. Here, we provide a protocol for the identification of novel CLR ligands by glycan array using recombinant CLR-Fc chimeras followed by the covalent conjugation of carbohydrate CLR ligands to the model antigen ovalbumin (OVA). The resulting glycoconjugates are subsequently used to evaluate T cell activation in vitro and immunomodulation in vivo.

Key words

C-type lectin receptor Fc fusion protein Glycan array Cell targeting Carbohydrate adjuvants Immunomodulation 



This work was supported by the Max Planck Society. We further acknowledge funding by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (Fkz. 0315446 to B. L.) and the SFB 765 (to B.L.).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biomolecular SystemsMax Planck Institute of Colloids and InterfacesPotsdamGermany
  2. 2.Department of Biology, Chemistry and Pharmacy, Institute of Chemistry and BiochemistryFreie Universität BerlinBerlinGermany
  3. 3.University of Veterinary Medicine, Research Center for Emerging Infections and ZoonosesHannoverGermany

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