Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chains of proteoglycans are involved in a wide variety of developmental and pathophysiological functions. Similar to a gene knockout, the ability to inhibit GAG biosynthesis would allow us to examine the function of endogenous GAG chains. However, ubiquitously and irreversibly knocking out all GAG biosynthesis would cause multiple effects making it difficult to attribute a specific biological role to a specific GAG structure in spatiotemporal manner. Reversible and selective inhibition of GAG biosynthesis would allow us to examine the importance of endogenous GAGs to specific cellular, tissue, or organ systems. In this chapter, we describe the chemical synthesis and biological evaluation of 4-deoxy-4-fluoro-xylosides as selective inhibitors of heparan sulfate and chondroitin/dermatan sulfate proteoglycan biosynthesis.
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This work was supported in part by NIH grants (GM075168 and HL107152 to B.K.), Human Frontier Science Program grant (RGP0044/2006 to B.K.), and KAKENHI grant (No. 23590005 to M.K.).
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