The historical classification of human rhinoviruses (RV) by serotyping has been replaced by a logical system of comparative sequencing. Given that strains must diverge within their capsid sequenced by a reasonable degree (>12–13 % pairwise base identities) before becoming immunologically distinct, the new nomenclature system makes allowances for the addition of new, future types, without compromising historical designations. Currently, three species, the RV-A, RV-B, and RV-C, are recognized. Of these, the RV-C, discovered in 2006, are the most unusual in terms of capsid structure, receptor use, and association with severe disease in children.
Rhinovirus Evolution Virus taxonomy Immunology Drug resistance
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This work was supported by NIH grant U19 AI104317. The authors thank Wolters Kluwer, publishers of Field’s Virology (2013), for permission to include certain text and figures from Ch 18, “Rhinoviruses” by the same authors.
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