Hox Genes pp 133-144 | Cite as

Functional Analysis of Hox Genes in Zebrafish

  • Franck Ladam
  • Charles G. SagerströmEmail author
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1196)


The zebrafish model organism is well suited to study the role of specific genes, such as hox genes, in embryogenesis and organ function. The ability to modulate the activity of hox genes in living zebrafish embryos represents a cornerstone of such functional analyses. In this chapter we outline the basic methodology for nucleic acid injections into 1–2-cell-stage zebrafish embryos. We also report variations in this method to allow injection of mRNA, DNA, and antisense oligonucleotides to either overexpress, knock down, or knock out specific genes in zebrafish embryos.

Key words

hox Zebrafish Microinjection Over-expression Morpholino Tol2 Transgenesis Zinc-finger nuclease TALE nuclease CRISPR-Cas system 



This work was supported by NIH grants NS038183 and HD065081 to CGS.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry and Molecular PharmacologyUniversity of Massachusetts Medical SchoolWorcesterUSA
  2. 2.University of Massachusetts Medical SchoolWorcesterUSA

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