Intravital Imaging of Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes

  • Gaetano FaleoEmail author
  • Per-Olof Berggren
  • Antonello Pileggi
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1186)


Intravital imaging approaches are proving to be essential to address new questions to better understand how the immune system operates. These approaches are especially valuable to characterize the complex organization of immune responses in vivo. Here, we examine how to take advantage of the cornea as a natural body window to apply noninvasive imaging techniques to assess cytotoxic T lymphocyte involvement in the immune rejection process in a model of intraocular allogeneic islet transplantation.

Key words

In vivo imaging CD8 T cells Cytotoxic T lymphocytes Immune response Rejection Islet transplantation In vivo cytolabeling Live microscopy Anterior chamber of the eye (ACE) 



We thank the Diabetes Research Institute’s Cores (“Preclinical Cell Processing and Translational Models,” “Imaging,” “Flow Cytometry,” and “Histology Laboratory”) for the invaluable technical expertise provided.

Financial support for these studies was provided by the Diabetes Research Institute Foundation (to POB and AP); the National Institute of Health (NIH) through the National Institute of Digestive and Kidney Disease (5U19AI050864-10 to AP; U01DK089538 to POB and AP; 5U42 RR016603; 1R01EB008009 to AP; F32DK083226; R56DK084321, R01DK084321, and R03DK075487, the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International (4-2004-361 to POB and AP; 4-2008-811 to AP; 17-2010-5 and 17-2012-361 to AP); the American Diabetes Association (7-13-IN-32, to AP); and the Larry L. Hillblom Foundation (to GF). Additional research support was provided through funds (to POB) from Karolinska Institutet, the Swedish Research Council, the Swedish Diabetes Foundation, the Family Erling-Persson Foundation, the Family Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, the Skandia Insurance Company Ltd., VIBRANT (FP7-228933-2), Strategic Research Program in Diabetes at Karolinska Institutet, the NovoNordisk Foundation, the Stichting af Jochnick Foundation, and the Berth von Kantzow’s Foundation.

Disclosures: P-OB is co-founder and CEO of BioCrine AB who is using the anterior chamber of the eye in vivo imaging platform for commercial purposes.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gaetano Faleo
    • 1
    Email author
  • Per-Olof Berggren
    • 2
    • 3
  • Antonello Pileggi
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
  1. 1.Transplantation Research Laboratory, Department of SurgeryUniversity of CaliforniaSan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.Hospital StockholmKarolinska InstitutetStockholmSweden
  3. 3.Diabetes Research Institute, Miller School of MedicineUniversity of MiamiMiamiUSA
  4. 4.Division of Cellular Transplantation, DeWitt-Daughtry Family Department of Surgery, Miller School of MedicineUniversity of MiamiMiamiUSA
  5. 5.Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Miller School of MedicineUniversity of MiamiMiamiUSA
  6. 6.Department of Biomedical EngineeringUniversity of MiamiMiamiUSA

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