Advertisement

Methods of Detection of Immune Reconstitution and T Regulatory Cells by Flow Cytometry

  • Richard Charles Duggleby
  • J. Alejandro Madrigal
Protocol
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1109)

Abstract

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell therapy (HSCT) remains one of the few curative treatments for high-risk hematological malignancies (high-risk leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, advanced myeloproliferative disorders, high-risk lymphomas, and multiple myeloma) and is currently applied in more than 15,000 patients per year in Europe. Following HSCT, patients experience a period of reconstitution of the immune system, which seems to be highly dependent on conditioning, immunosuppression regimes, and the level of adverse events the patients experience. During this reconstitution period, the patient is immune compromised and susceptible to opportunistic infections and disease relapse. Consequently, a large number of clinical studies have been devoted to monitoring the recovery of the immune system following HSCT in the hopes of determining which cellular subsets are indicative of a favorable outcome. In this chapter we review the methods that have been employed to monitor the immune reconstitution and what clinical observations have been made. Of particular interest is the regulatory T cell (Treg) subset, which has been associated with tolerance and has been the subject of recent clinical trials as a possible cellular therapy for rejection reactions. Finally we will detail a proposed methodology for the flow cytometric assessment of cellular reconstitution post-HSCT.

Key words

Hematopoietic stem cell therapy Cellular reconstitution B cells NK cells T cells Regulatory T cells Dendritic cells Whole blood flow cytometry 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Dr Bronwen Shaw, Dr Sameer Tulpule, Damini Tewari, and Vikesh Devlia, Anthony Nolan Research Institute, London, UK, and Dr John Girdlestone and Dr Cristina Navarrete, H&I Department, NHS Blood and Transplant, Colindale, UK, for developing the panel on which Table 1 is based. The authors would also like to thank Dr Sergio Querol, Banc de Sang i Teixits, Barcelona, Spain, and medical consultant for the Anthony Nolan Cell Therapy Centre, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, UK, for his assistance in compiling this chapter.

Disclosure The authors certify that they have no affiliation with or financial involvement in any organization or entity with a direct financial interest in the subject matter or materials discussed in this manuscript.

References

  1. 1.
    Mackall CL, Fleisher TA, Brown MR et al (1995) Age, thymopoiesis, and CD4+ T-lymphocyte regeneration after intensive chemotherapy. N Engl J Med 332:143–149PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Storek J, Joseph A, Dawson MA et al (2002) Factors influencing T-lymphopoiesis after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Transplantation 73:1154–1158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Eyrich M, Wollny G, Tzaribaschev N et al (2005) Onset of thymic recovery and plateau of thymic output are differentially regulated after stem cell transplantation in children. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 11:194–205PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Steffens CM, Al-Harthi L, Shott S et al (2000) Evaluation of thymopoiesis using T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs): differential correlation between adult and pediatric TRECs and naïve phenotypes. Clin Immunol 97:95–101PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mackall CL, Gress RE (1997) Thymic aging and T-cell regeneration. Immunol Rev 160:91–102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chinen J, Buckley RH (2010) Transplantation immunology: solid organ and bone marrow. J Allergy Clin Immunol 125:S324–S335PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Weinberg K (2001) Factors affecting thymic function after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Blood 97:1458–1466PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Maury S, Mary JY, Rabian C et al (2001) Prolonged immune deficiency following allogeneic stem cell transplantation: risk factors and complications in adult patients. Br J Haematol 115:630–641PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lewin SR, Heller G, Zhang L et al (2002) Direct evidence for new T-cell generation by patients after either T-cell-depleted or unmodified allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantations. Blood 100:2235–2242PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Poulin JF, Sylvestre M, Champagne P et al (2003) Evidence for adequate thymic function but impaired naive T-cell survival following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the absence of chronic graft-versus-host disease. Blood 102:4600–4607PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fallen PR, McGreavey L, Madrigal JA et al (2003) Factors affecting reconstitution of the T cell compartment in allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplant recipients. Bone Marrow Transplant 32:1001–1014PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Storek J, Gooley T, Witherspoon RP et al (1997) Infectious morbidity in long-term survivors of allogeneic marrow transplantation is associated with low CD4 T cell counts. Am J Hematol 54:131–138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fukushi N, Arase H, Wang B et al (1990) Thymus: a direct target tissue in graft-versus-host reaction after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation that results in abrogation of induction of self-tolerance. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87:6301–6305PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Holländer GA, Widmer B, Burakoff SJ (1994) Loss of normal thymic repertoire selection and persistence of autoreactive T cells in graft vs host disease. J Immunol 152:1609–1617PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    van den Brink MR, Moore E, Ferrara JL et al (2000) Graft-versus-host-disease-associated thymic damage results in the appearance of T cell clones with anti-host reactivity. Transplantation 69:446–449PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jiménez M, Ercilla G, Martínez C (2007) Immune reconstitution after allogeneic stem cell transplantation with reduced-intensity conditioning regimens. Leukemia 21:1628–1637PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Prasad VK, Mendizabal A, Parikh SH et al (2008) Unrelated donor umbilical cord blood transplantation for inherited metabolic disorders in 159 pediatric patients from a single center: influence of cellular composition of the graft on transplantation outcomes. Blood 112:2979–2989PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Allan DS, Keeney M, Howson-Jan K et al (2002) Number of viable CD34(+) cells reinfused predicts engraftment in autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant 29:967–972PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bosch M, Khan FM, Storek J (2012) Immune reconstitution after hematopoietic cell transplantation. Curr Opin Hematol 19:324–335PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Karre K (2002) NK cells, MHC class I molecules and the missing self. Scand J Immunol 55:221–228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Fujimaki K, Maruta A, Yoshida M et al (2001) Immune reconstitution assessed during five years after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant 27:1275–1281PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cooper MA, Fehniger TA, Caligiuri MA (2001) The biology of human natural killer-cell subsets. Trends Immunol 22:633–640PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Komanduri KV, St John LS, de Lima M et al (2007) Delayed immune reconstitution after cord blood transplantation is characterized by impaired thymopoiesis and late memory T-cell skewing. Blood 110:4543–4551PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    De Angelis C, Mancusi A, Ruggeri L et al (2011) Expansion of CD56-negative, CD16-positive, KIR-expressing natural killer cells after T cell-depleted haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Acta Haematol 126:13–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Porrata LF, Inwards DJ, Ansell SM et al (2008) Early lymphocyte recovery predicts superior survival after autologous stem cell transplantation in non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a prospective study. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 14:807–816PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Chang YJ, Zhao XY, Huang XJ (2008) Effects of the NK cell recovery on outcomes of unmanipulated haploidentical blood and marrow transplantation for patients with hematologic malignancies. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 14:323–334PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Baron F, Baker JE, Storb R et al (2004) Kinetics of engraftment in patients with hematologic malignancies given allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation after nonmyeloablative conditioning. Blood 104:2254–2262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Marie-Cardine A, Divay F, Dutot I et al (2008) Transitional B cells in humans: characterization and insight from B lymphocyte reconstitution after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Clin Immunol 127:14–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sugalski JM, Rodriguez B, Moir S et al (2010) Peripheral blood B cell subset skewing is associated with altered cell cycling and intrinsic resistance to apoptosis and reflects a state of immune activation in chronic hepatitis C virus infection. J Immunol 185:3019–3027PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Storek J (2001) Immune reconstitution after allogeneic marrow transplantation compared with blood stem cell transplantation. Blood 97:3380–3389PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Storek J, Witherspoon RP, Storb R (1997) Reconstitution of membrane IgD- (mIgD-) B cells after marrow transplantation lags behind the reconstitution of mIgD+ B cells. Blood 89:350–351PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Novitzky N, Davison GM, Hale G et al (2002) Immune reconstitution at 6 months following T-cell depleted hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is predictive for treatment outcome. Transplantation 74:1551–1559PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Storek J, Espino G, Dawson MA et al (2000) Low B-cell and monocyte counts on day 80 are associated with high infection rates between days 100 and 365 after allogeneic marrow transplantation. Blood 96:3290–3293PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Storek J, Wells D, Dawson MA et al (2001) Factors influencing B lymphopoiesis after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Blood 98:489–491PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Curtis RE, Travis LB, Rowlings PA et al (1999) Risk of lymphoproliferative disorders after bone marrow transplantation: a multi-institutional study. Blood 94:2208–2216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Martin PJ, Hansen JA, Buckner CD et al (1985) Effects of in vitro depletion of T cells in HLA-identical allogeneic marrow grafts. Blood 66:664–672PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Marmont AM, Horowitz MM, Gale RP et al (1991) T-cell depletion of HLA-identical transplants in leukemia. Blood 78:2120–2130PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bartelink IH, Belitser SV, Knibbe CAJ et al (2013) Immune reconstitution kinetics as an early predictor for mortality using various hematopoietic stem cell sources in children. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 19:305–313PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Sallusto F, Geginat J, Lanzavecchia A (2004) Central memory and effector memory T cell subsets: function, generation, and maintenance. Annu Rev Immunol 22:745–763PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Picker LJ, Treer JR, Ferguson-Darnell B et al (1993) Control of lymphocyte recirculation in man. I. Differential regulation of the peripheral lymph node homing receptor L-selectin on T cells during the virgin to memory cell transition. J Immunol 150:1105–1121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Storek J, Joseph A, Espino G et al (2001) Immunity of patients surviving 20 to 30 years after allogeneic or syngeneic bone marrow transplantation. Blood 98:3505–3512PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kimmig S, Przybylski GK, Schmidt CA et al (2002) Two subsets of naive T helper cells with distinct T cell receptor excision circle content in human adult peripheral blood. J Exp Med 195:789–794PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Storek J, Witherspoon RP, Storb R (1995) T cell reconstitution after bone marrow transplantation into adult patients does not resemble T cell development in early life. Bone Marrow Transplant 16:413–425PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Gratama JW, van Esser JW, Lamers CH et al (2001) Tetramer-based quantification of cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes in T-cell-depleted stem cell grafts and after transplantation may identify patients at risk for progressive CMV infection. Blood 98:1358–1364PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Pastore D, Delia M, Mestice A et al (2011) Recovery of CMV-specific CD8+ T cells and Tregs after allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 17:550–557PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Feuchtinger T, Lücke J, Hamprecht K et al (2005) Detection of adenovirus-specific T cells in children with adenovirus infection after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Br J Haematol 128:503–509PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Sakaguchi S (2004) Naturally arising CD4+ regulatory t cells for immunologic self-tolerance and negative control of immune responses. Annu Rev Immunol 22:531–562PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Groux H, O’Garra A, Bigler M et al (1997) A CD4+ T-cell subset inhibits antigen-specific T-cell responses and prevents colitis. Nature 389:737–742PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Weiner HL (2001) Induction and mechanism of action of transforming growth factor-beta-secreting Th3 regulatory cells. Immunol Rev 182:207–214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Dejaco C, Duftner C, Grubeck-Loebenstein B et al (2006) Imbalance of regulatory T cells in human autoimmune diseases. Immunology 117:289–300PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Annacker O, Powrie F (2002) Homeostasis of intestinal immune regulation. Microbes Infect 4:567–574PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kullberg MC, Jankovic D, Gorelick PL et al (2002) Bacteria-triggered CD4(+) T regulatory cells suppress Helicobacter hepaticus-induced colitis. J Exp Med 196:505–515PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Maloy KJ, Salaun L, Cahill R et al (2003) CD4+CD25+ T(R) cells suppress innate immune pathology through cytokine-dependent mechanisms. J Exp Med 197:111–119PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hori S, Carvalho TL, Demengeot J (2002) CD25+CD4+ regulatory T cells suppress CD4+ T cell-mediated pulmonary hyperinflammation driven by Pneumocystis carinii in immunodeficient mice. Eur J Immunol 32:1282–1291PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Montagnoli C, Bacci A, Bozza S et al (2002) B7/CD28-dependent CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells are essential components of the memory-protective immunity to Candida albicans. J Immunol 169:6298–6308PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Aseffa A, Gumy A, Launois P et al (2002) The early IL-4 response to Leishmania major and the resulting Th2 cell maturation steering progressive disease in BALB/c mice are subject to the control of regulatory CD4+CD25+ T cells. J Immunol 169:3232–3241PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Belkaid Y, Piccirillo CA, Mendez S et al (2002) CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells control Leishmania major persistence and immunity. Nature 420:502–507PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Trowsdale J, Betz AG (2006) Mother’s little helpers: mechanisms of maternal-fetal tolerance. Nat Immunol 7:241–246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Di Ianni M, Falzetti F, Carotti A et al (2011) Tregs prevent GVHD and promote immune reconstitution in HLA-haploidentical transplantation. Blood 117:3921–3928PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Brunstein CG, Miller JS, Cao Q et al (2011) Infusion of ex vivo expanded T regulatory cells in adults transplanted with umbilical cord blood: safety profile and detection kinetics. Blood 117:1061–1070PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Sakaguchi S, Sakaguchi N, Asano M et al (1995) Immunologic self-tolerance maintained by activated T cells expressing IL-2 receptor alpha-chains (CD25). Breakdown of a single mechanism of self-tolerance causes various autoimmune diseases. J Immunol 155:1151–1164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Seddiki N, Santner-Nanan B, Martinson J et al (2006) Expression of interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-7 receptors discriminates between human regulatory and activated T cells. J Exp Med 203:1693–1700PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Fontenot JD, Gavin MA, Rudensky AY (2003) Foxp3 programs the development and function of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. Nat Immunol 4:330–336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Hori S, Nomura T, Sakaguchi S (2003) Control of regulatory T cell development by the transcription factor Foxp3. Science 299:1057–1061PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Khattri R, Cox T, Yasayko S-A et al (2003) An essential role for Scurfin in CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells. Nat Immunol 4:337–342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Gavin MA, Torgerson TR, Houston E et al (2006) Single-cell analysis of normal and FOXP3-mutant human T cells: FOXP3 expression without regulatory T cell development. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103:6659–6664PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Wolf D, Wolf AM, Fong D et al (2007) Regulatory T-cells in the graft and the risk of acute graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Transplantation 83:1107–1113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Rezvani K, Mielke S, Ahmadzadeh M et al (2006) High donor FOXP3-positive regulatory T-cell (Treg) content is associated with a low risk of GVHD following HLA-matched allogeneic SCT. Blood 108:1291–1297PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    McIver Z, Melenhorst JJ, Wu C et al (2013) Donor lymphocyte count and thymic activity predict lymphocyte recovery and outcomes after matched-sibling hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Haematologica 98(3):346–352PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Allan SE, Broady R, Gregori S et al (2008) CD4+ T-regulatory cells: toward therapy for human diseases. Immunol Rev 223:391–421PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Clark FJ, Gregg R, Piper K et al (2004) Chronic graft-versus-host disease is associated with increased numbers of peripheral blood CD4+CD25high regulatory T cells. Blood 103:2410–2416PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Sanchez J, Casaño J, Alvarez MA et al (2004) Kinetic of regulatory CD25high and activated CD134+ (OX40) T lymphocytes during acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Br J Haematol 126:697–703PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Watanabe N, Narita M, Furukawa T et al (2011) Kinetics of pDCs, mDCs, γδT cells and regulatory T cells in association with graft versus host disease after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Int J Lab Hematol 33:378–390PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Magenau JM, Qin X, Tawara I et al (2010) Frequency of CD4(+)CD25(hi)FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells has diagnostic and prognostic value as a biomarker for acute graft-versus-host-disease. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 16:907–914PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Zorn E, Kim HT, Lee SJ et al (2005) Reduced frequency of FOXP3+ CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease. Blood 106:2903–2911PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Meignin V, Peffault de Latour R, Zuber J et al (2005) Numbers of Foxp3-expressing CD4+CD25high T cells do not correlate with the establishment of long-term tolerance after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Exp Hematol 33:894–900PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Kawano Y, Kim HT, Matsuoka KI et al (2011) Low telomerase activity in CD4+ regulatory T cells in patients with severe chronic GVHD after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Blood 118:5021–5030PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Miura Y, Thoburn CJ, Bright EC et al (2004) Association of Foxp3 regulatory gene expression with graft-versus-host disease. Blood 104:2187–2193PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Ngoma AM, Ikeda K, Hashimoto Y et al (2012) Impaired regulatory T cell reconstitution in patients with acute graft-versus-host disease and cytomegalovirus infection after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Int J Hematol 95:86–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Mielke S, Rezvani K, Savani BN et al (2007) Reconstitution of FOXP3. Blood 110:1689–1697PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Rieger K, Loddenkemper C, Maul J et al (2006) Mucosal FOXP3+ regulatory T cells are numerically deficient in acute and chronic GvHD. Blood 107:1717–1723PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Wu KN, Emmons RVB, Lisanti MP et al (2009) Foxp3-expressing T regulatory cells and mast cells in acute graft-versus-host disease of the skin. Cell Cycle 8:3593–3597PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Stenger EO, Turnquist HR, Mapara MY et al (2012) Dendritic cells and regulation of graft-versus-host disease and graft-versus-leukemia activity. Blood 119:5088–5103PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Wu L, Liu YJ (2007) Development of dendritic-cell lineages. Immunity 26:741–750PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Gilliet M, Cao W, Liu YJ (2008) Plasmacytoid dendritic cells: sensing nucleic acids in viral infection and autoimmune diseases. Nat Rev Immunol 8:594–606PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Koyama M, Hashimoto D, Aoyama K et al (2009) Plasmacytoid dendritic cells prime alloreactive T cells to mediate graft-versus-host disease as antigen-presenting cells. Blood 113:2088–2095PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Dzionek A, Fuchs A, Schmidt P et al (2000) BDCA-2, BDCA-3, and BDCA-4: three markers for distinct subsets of dendritic cells in human peripheral blood. J Immunol 165:6037–6046PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Shlomchik WD, Couzens MS, Tang CB et al (1999) Prevention of graft versus host disease by inactivation of host antigen-presenting cells. Science 285:412–415PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Duffner UA, Maeda Y, Cooke KR et al (2004) Host dendritic cells alone are sufficient to initiate acute graft-versus-host disease. J Immunol 172:7393–7398PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Matte CC, Liu J, Cormier J et al (2004) Donor APCs are required for maximal GVHD but not for GVL. Nat Med 10:987–992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Reddy P, Maeda Y, Liu C et al (2005) A crucial role for antigen-presenting cells and alloantigen expression in graft-versus-leukemia responses. Nat Med 11:1244–1249PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Chakraverty R, Eom HS, Sachs J et al (2006) Host MHC class II+ antigen-presenting cells and CD4 cells are required for CD8-mediated graft-versus-leukemia responses following delayed donor leukocyte infusions. Blood 108:2106–2113PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Reddy V, Iturraspe JA, Tzolas AC et al (2004) Low dendritic cell count after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation predicts relapse, death, and acute graft-versus-host disease. Blood 103:4330–4335PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Mohty M, Blaise D, Faucher C et al (2005) Impact of plasmacytoid dendritic cells on outcome after reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Leukemia 19:1–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Clark FJ, Freeman L, Dzionek A et al (2003) Origin and subset distribution of peripheral blood dendritic cells in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease. Transplantation 75:221–225PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Waller EK, Rosenthal H, Jones TW et al (2001) Larger numbers of CD4(bright) dendritic cells in donor bone marrow are associated with increased relapse after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Blood 97:2948–2956PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Lau J, Sartor M, Bradstock KF et al (2007) Activated circulating dendritic cells after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation predict acute graft-versus-host disease. Transplantation 83:839–846PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Lee YR, Yang IH, Lee YH et al (2005) Cyclosporin A and tacrolimus, but not rapamycin, inhibit MHC-restricted antigen presentation pathways in dendritic cells. Blood 105:3951–3955PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Piemonti L, Monti P, Allavena P et al (1999) Glucocorticoids affect human dendritic cell differentiation and maturation. J Immunol 162:6473–6481PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Lee YH, Lee YR, Im S et al (2007) Calcineurin inhibitors block MHC-restricted antigen presentation in vivo. J Immunol 179:5711–5716PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Turnquist HR, Raimondi G, Zahorchak AF et al (2007) Rapamycin-conditioned dendritic cells are poor stimulators of allogeneic CD4+ T cells, but enrich for antigen-specific Foxp3+ T regulatory cells and promote organ transplant tolerance. J Immunol 178:7018–7031PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Szabo G, Gavala C, Mandrekar P (2001) Tacrolimus and cyclosporine A inhibit allostimulatory capacity and cytokine production of human myeloid dendritic cells. J investig med 49(5):442–449Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Sutherland DR, Anderson L, Keeney M et al (1996) The ISHAGE guidelines for CD34+ cell determination by flow cytometry. International Society of Hematotherapy and Graft Engineering. J Hematother 5:213–226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Sutherland DR, Nayyar R, Acton E et al (2009) Comparison of two single-platform ISHAGE-based CD34 enumeration protocols on BD FACSCalibur and FACSCanto flow cytometers. Cytotherapy 11:595–605PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Takahashi E, Kuranaga N, Satoh K et al (2007) Induction of CD16+ CD56bright NK cells with antitumour cytotoxicity not only from CD16- CD56bright NK cells but also from CD16- CD56dim NK cells. Scand J Immunol 65:126–138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Barbui AM, Borleri G, Conti E et al (2006) Clinical grade expansion of CD45RA, CD45RO, and CD62L-positive T-cell lines from HLA-compatible donors: high cytotoxic potential against AML and ALL cells. Exp Hematol 34:475–485PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Tanaskovic S, Fernandez S, Price P et al (2010) CD31 (PECAM-1) is a marker of recent thymic emigrants among CD4+ T-cells, but not CD8+ T-cells or gammadelta T-cells, in HIV patients responding to ART. Immunol Cell Biol 88:321–327PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    MacDonald KPA, Munster DJ, Clark GJ et al (2002) Characterization of human blood dendritic cell subsets. Blood 100:4512–4520PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Maecker HT, McCoy JP, Nussenblatt R (2012) Standardizing immunophenotyping for the Human Immunology Project. Nat Rev Immunol 12:191–200PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Pulsipher MA, Chitphakdithai P, Logan BR et al (2009) Donor, recipient, and transplant characteristics as risk factors after unrelated donor PBSC transplantation: beneficial effects of higher CD34+ cell dose. Blood 114:2606–2616PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Wagner JE, Barker JN, DeFor TE et al (2002) Transplantation of unrelated donor umbilical cord blood in 102 patients with malignant and nonmalignant diseases: influence of CD34 cell dose and HLA disparity on treatment-related mortality and survival. Blood 100:1611–1618PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Haynes B, Hale L, Weinhold K et al (1999) Analysis of the adult thymus in reconstitution of T lymphocytes in HIV-1 infection. J Clin Invest 103:921PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard Charles Duggleby
    • 1
  • J. Alejandro Madrigal
    • 2
  1. 1.Anthony Nolan Research InstituteRoyal Free HospitalLondonUK
  2. 2.Anthony Nolan Research InstituteUniversity College LondonLondonUK

Personalised recommendations