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Canonical Inflammasomes

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NLR Proteins

Part of the book series: Methods in Molecular Biology ((MIMB,volume 2696))

Abstract

The innate immune response represents the first line of host defense, and it is able to detect pathogen- and damage-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs and DAMPs, respectively) through a variety of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Among these PRRs, certain cytosolic receptors of the NLRs family (specifically NLRP1, NLRP3, NLRC4, and NAIP) or those containing at least a pyrin domain (PYD) such as pyrin and AIM2, activate the multimeric complex known as inflammasome, and its effector enzyme caspase-1. The caspase-1 induces the proteolytic maturation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1ß and IL-18, as well as the pore-forming protein gasdermin D (GSDMD). GSDMD is responsible for the release of the two cytokines and the induction of lytic and inflammatory cell death known as pyroptosis. Each inflammasome receptor detects specific stimuli, either directly or indirectly, thereby enhancing the cell’s ability to sense infections or homeostatic disturbances. In this chapter, we present the activation mechanism of the so-called “canonical” inflammasomes.

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Leal, V., Pontillo, A. (2023). Canonical Inflammasomes. In: Pelegrín, P., Di Virgilio, F. (eds) NLR Proteins. Methods in Molecular Biology, vol 2696. Humana, New York, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-3350-2_1

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