Skip to main content

Transmission of Viruses Through Nematodes

  • 923 Accesses

Part of the Springer Protocols Handbooks book series (SPH)


The appearance of a patch or patches of diseased plants in a crop is often the first indication of the existence of nematode–borne virus infection in the field. Ectoparasitic nematodes in the genera Longidorus, Paratrichodorus, Trichodorus and Xiphinema are involved in the transmission of nepo- and tobra-group of viruses. These viruses are also mechanically transmissible through infected sap. Infection of a bait plant is the standard method used for detecting nematode transmission in a test soil. Plants are grown in the soil to allow any viruliferous nematodes to feed and transmit the virus. Sap extracted from roots and leaves of the bait plants are then inoculated mechanically with a range of indicator hosts to confirm and identify the associated virus.

Key words

  • Longidorus
  • Paratrichodorus
  • Trichodorus
  • Xiphinema
  • Virus transmission

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

USD   49.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-1-0716-0334-5_19
  • Chapter length: 7 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
USD   119.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-1-0716-0334-5
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   159.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   249.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 19.1
Fig. 19.2
Fig. 19.3

Springer Nature is developing a new tool to find and evaluate Protocols. Learn more


  • Barker KR (1985) Nematode extraction and bioassays. In: Barker KR, Carter CC, Sasser JN (eds) An advanced treatise on Meloidogyne, vol 2. Methodology. North Carolina State University, Raleigh

    Google Scholar 

  • Cobb NA (1918) Estimating the nema populations of soil. US Dep Agr Tech Circular No.1

    Google Scholar 

  • Nayudu MV (2008) Plan viruses. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi

    Google Scholar 

  • Raski DJ, Hewitt WB (1963) Plant parasitic nematodes as vectors of plant viruses. Phytopathology 53:39–47

    Google Scholar 

  • Singh RS, Sitaramaiah K (1994) Plant pathogens: the plant parasitic nematodes. Inter Sci Publ, The University of Michigan, p 320

    Google Scholar 

  • Taylor CE (1972) Transmission of viruses by nematodes. In: Kado CI, Agrawal HO (eds) Principles and techniques in plant virology. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2020 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature

About this protocol

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this protocol

Bhat, A.I., Rao, G.P. (2020). Transmission of Viruses Through Nematodes. In: Characterization of Plant Viruses . Springer Protocols Handbooks. Humana, New York, NY.

Download citation

  • DOI:

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Humana, New York, NY

  • Print ISBN: 978-1-0716-0333-8

  • Online ISBN: 978-1-0716-0334-5

  • eBook Packages: Springer Protocols