Thrips are small insects difficult to see by naked eye, cosmopolitan and highly polyphagous. Tospoviruses are transmitted by thrips in a persistent propagative manner. Only first stage larvae of the thrips can acquire the virus while adults can transmit the virus throughout its life. In majority of the cases especially ilarviruses (passively) and tospoviruses transmitted by thrips cause necrotic symptoms in affected plants.
- Persistent propagative transmission
- Culturing of thrips