Multiplex Fluorescent Antibody Microarrays and Antibody Graphs for Microbial and Biomarker Detection in the Environment

  • Yolanda Blanco
  • Mercedes Moreno-Paz
  • Jacobo Aguirre
  • Victor Parro
Part of the Springer Protocols Handbooks book series (SPH)


We describe a rapid protocol for multiplex fluorescent sandwich microarray immunoassay (FSMI) for detecting microorganisms and biomarkers in environmental samples. An FSMI consists basically in two steps: (i) specific binding of antigens (or any recognizable analyte in a sample) to the immobilized antibodies (capturing antibodies) on a microarray and (ii) revealing specific antigen-antibody binding by fluorescently labelled antibodies (tracer or detector antibodies). Because multiplexing immunoassays may produce cross-reaction events, we have developed a method, based on graph theory, to disentangle such cross-reactions associated to an antibody microarray. First, we need to generate an antibody graph from the experimental cross-reactivity test of each antigen with its fluorescent antibody (tracer) by FSMI on the whole microarray. From the matrix of quantified fluorescence, it is possible to establish a weighted correlation between each cognate antigen-antibody pair and other antibodies printed on the microarray. Then, deconvolution methods allow disentangling the cross-reaction events and discriminate between true cognate antigen-antibody recognition from others due to related antigenic structures. Therefore, the multiplex FSMI implemented with antibody graphs is a powerful technique for the analysis and characterization of environmental samples, in the identification and monitoring of the microbial diversity or the detection of microbial biomarkers that might be relevant for hydrocarbon microbiology.


Antibody microarray Biosensor Deconvolution method Environmental monitoring Graph theory Multiplex sandwich microarray immunoassay 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yolanda Blanco
    • 1
  • Mercedes Moreno-Paz
    • 1
  • Jacobo Aguirre
    • 2
  • Victor Parro
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Molecular EvolutionCentro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC)MadridSpain
  2. 2.Centro Nacional de Biotecnología (CSIC)MadridSpain

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