Integrin αvβ3-Targeted Optical Imaging with Metal Oxide Nanomaterials: Focusing on Zinc Oxide
Integrin αvβ3 is one of the most important factors during angiogenesis (i.e., the formation of new vasculature). To fully elucidate its role in different pathological process, a tool which can visualize its distribution profile and/or fluctuation will be of great value. Metal oxide nanomaterials, with unique physical properties and versatile biological applications, can be suitable candidates for this type of application. Among all the metal oxide nanomaterials, zinc oxide (ZnO) has different forms of nanostructures and possesses several distinct advantages including tunable luminescence, good biocompatibility, low cytotoxicity, and versatile chemical reaction capacity with different molecules. Based on all these properties, ZnO nanomaterials can serve as a useful platform especially as an imaging tool for studying integrin αvβ3 in cells. With further optimization, these ZnO nanomaterials can be attractive alternatives for image-guided drug delivery applications via integrin αvβ3-mediated pathways. This chapter provides detailed protocols of how to produce luminescent ZnO nanomaterials (e.g., nanowires or nanoparticles) and use them at the cellular level for optical imaging of integrin αvβ3.
KeywordsIntegrin αvβ3 Fluorescence ZnO nanomaterials Angiogenesis Cancer targeting
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