Advertisement

pp 1-8 | Cite as

Use of U-STELA for Accurate Measurement of Extremely Short Telomeres

  • Nedime Serakinci
  • Huseyin Cagsin
  • Merdiye Mavis
Protocol
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series

Abstract

Telomeres are repetitive genetic materials that protect the chromosomes by capping the ends of chromosomes. Each time a cell divides, telomeres get shorter. Telomere length is mainly maintained by telomerase. This enzyme is present in the embryonic stem cells in high concentrations and declines with age. It is still unclear to what extend there is telomerase in adult stem cells, but considering these are the founder cells to the cells of the all tissues in a body, understanding the telomere dynamics and expression of telomerase in adult stem cells is very important.

Telomere length has been implicated as one of the markers for neoplastic transformation in both in vivo and in vitro studies. During cancerogenesis, telomeres shorten due to high cell turnover and repeats are added by active telomerase or alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). This gradual shortening is replication driven and does not necessarily explain the presence of ultrashort telomeres. Ultrashort telomeres are observed when there is a sudden shortening in telomeres not related with cell division and may arise from breaks in telomeres due to oxidative damage and replication slippage.

Universal STELA is an accurate method for evaluation of ultrashort telomeres in hMSC-telo1 cells. Compared to TRF assay, U-STELA is developed to overcome several problems in detecting abrupt telomere shortening in a single chromosome.

Keywords

Mesenchymal stem cells Telomerase Telomere homeostasis Telomere length U-STELA 

References

  1. 1.
    Martens UM, Chavez EA, Poon SSS, Schmoor C, Lansdorp PM (2000) Accumulation of short telomeres in human fibroblasts prior to replicative senescence. Exp Cell Res 256:291–299CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Serakinci N, Hoare SF, Kassem M, Atkinson SP, Keith WN (2006) Telomerase promoter reprogramming and interaction with general transcription factors in the human mesenchymal stem cell. Regen Med 1(1):125–131CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Jiang H, Ju Z, Rudolph KL (2007) Telomere shortening and ageing. Z Gerontol Geriatr 40:314–324CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Grach A (2013) Telomere shortening mechanisms. In: Stuart D (ed) The mechanisms of DNA replication. InTech, Rijeca Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hemann MT, Strong MA, Hao LY, Greider CW (2001) The shortest telomere, not average telomere length, is critical for cell viability and chromosome stability. Cell 107(1):67–77CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Capper R, Britt-Compton B, Tankimanova M, Rowson J, Letsolo B, Man S, Haughton M, Baird DM (2007) The nature of telomere fusion and a definition of the critical telomere length in human cells. Genes Dev 21(19):2495–2508CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Friis-Ottossen M, Bendix L, Kølvraa S, Norheim-Andersen S, De Angelis PM, Clausen OPF (2014) Telomere shortening correlates to dysplasia but not to DNA aneuploidy in longstanding ulcerative colitis. BMC Gastroenterol 14:8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cherif H, Tarry JL, Ozanne SE, Hales CN (2003) Ageing and telomeres: a study into organ- and gender-specific telomere shortening. Nucleic Acids Res 31(5):1576–1583CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Friedrich U, Griese EU, Schwab M, Fritz P, Thon KP, Klotz U (2000) Telomere length in different tissues of elderly patients. Mech Ageing Dev 119(3):89–99CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bendix L, Horn PB, Jensen UB, Rubelj I, Kolvraa S (2010) The load of short telomeres, estimated by a new method, Universal STELA, correlates with number of senescent cells. Aging Cell 9:383–397CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Montpetit AJ, Alhareeri AA, Montpetit M, Starkweather AR, Elmore LW, Filler K, Mohanraj L, Burton CW, Menzies VS, Lyon DE, Collins JB, Teefet JM, Jackson-Cook CK (2014) Telomere length: a review of methods for measurement. Nurs Res 63(4):289–299CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nedime Serakinci
    • 1
    • 2
  • Huseyin Cagsin
    • 2
  • Merdiye Mavis
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Medical Genetics, Faculty of MedicineNear East UniversityNicosiaCyprus
  2. 2.Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Faculty of Art and SciencesNear East UniversityNicosiaCyprus

Personalised recommendations