Advertisement

Evaluation of Efficacy of Yersinia pestis Vaccines

  • Xiaoyi Wang
Protocol
Part of the Springer Protocols Handbooks book series (SPH)

Abstract

Use of antibody response, cell-mediated immunity, survival rate analysis, and pathological observation to evaluate the protective efficacy of plague vaccines is described in this chapter. Determination of antibody response was performed by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) assays were performed for cytokine detection by using commercially available mouse ELISpot kits, and spots were counted using CTL Analyzer and ImmunoSpot Version 5.0 software. For survival rate analysis, immunized animals were challenged with a virulent Yersinia pestis strain, closely observed for 21 days, and the survival rate was calculated. Animals that survived at day 21 after challenge were humanely killed for postmortem examination. Their tissues were stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histopathological examination, and the presence of Y. pestis was detected by Giemsa staining under light microscopy. Immune complex deposition on glomerular basement membranes was detected using transmission electron microscopy. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to confirm the presence of Y. pestis in tissue sections.

Key words

Yersinia pestis Plague Vaccine Evaluation 

References

  1. 1.
    Russell P, Eley SM, Hibbs SE, Manchee RJ, Stagg AJ, Titball RW (1995) A comparison of plague vaccine, USP and EV76 vaccine induced protection against Yersinia pestis in a murine model. Vaccine 13(16):1551–1556CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Morton M, Garmory HS, Perkins SD, O’Dowd AM, Griffin KF, Turner AK, Bennett AM, Titball RW (2004) A Salmonella enterica serovar typhi vaccine expressing Yersinia pestis F1 antigen on its surface provides protection against plague in mice. Vaccine 22(20):2524–2532CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wang S, Heilman D, Liu F, Giehl T, Joshi S, Huang X, Chou TH, Goguen J, Lu S (2004) A DNA vaccine producing LcrV antigen in oligomers is effective in protecting mice from lethal mucosal challenge of plague. Vaccine 22(25–26):3348–3357CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Garmory HS, Freeman D, Brown KA, Titball RW (2004) Protection against plague afforded by immunisation with DNA vaccines optimised for expression of the Yersinia pestis V antigen. Vaccine 22(8):947–957CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Grosfeld H, Cohen S, Bino T, Flashner Y, Ber R, Mamroud E, Kronman C, Shafferman A, Velan B (2003) Effective protective immunity to Yersinia pestis infection conferred by DNA vaccine coding for derivatives of the F1 capsular antigen. Infect Immun 71(1):374–383CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Friedlander AM, Welkos SL, Worsham PL, Andrews GP, Heath DG, Anderson GW Jr, Pitt ML, Estep J, Davis K (1995) Relationship between virulence and immunity as revealed in recent studies of the F1 capsule of Yersinia pestis. Clin Infect Dis 21(Suppl 2):S178–S181CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Williamson ED, Vesey PM, Gillhespy KJ, Eley SM, Green M, Titball RW (1999) An IgG1 titre to the F1 and V antigens correlates with protection against plague in the mouse model. Clin Exp Immunol 116(1):107–114CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Williamson ED, Flick-Smith HC, Waters E, Miller J, Hodgson I, Le Butt CS, Hill J (2007) Immunogenicity of the rF1+rV vaccine for plague with identification of potential immune correlates. Microb Pathog 42(1):11–21CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bashaw J, Norris S, Weeks S, Trevino S, Adamovicz JJ, Welkos S (2007) Development of in vitro correlate assays of immunity to infection with Yersinia pestis. Clin Vaccine Immunol 14(5):605–616CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Smiley ST (2008) Immune defense against pneumonic plague. Immunol Rev 225:256–271CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wang T, Qi Z, Wu B, Zhu Z, Yang Y, Cui B, Dai R, Zhang Q, Qiu Y, Wang Z et al (2008) A new purification strategy for fraction 1 capsular antigen and its efficacy against Yersinia pestis virulent strain challenge. Protein Expr Purif 61(1):7–12CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Williamson ED, Stagg AJ, Eley SM, Taylor R, Green M, Jones SM, Titball RW (2007) Kinetics of the immune response to the (F1+V) vaccine in models of bubonic and pneumonic plague. Vaccine 25(6):1142–1148CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rasoamanana B, Leroy F, Boisier P, Rasolomaharo M, Buchy P, Carniel E, Chanteau S (1997) Field evaluation of an immunoglobulin G anti-F1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serodiagnosis of human plague in Madagascar. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 4(5):587–591PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ridderstad A, Nossal GJ, Tarlinton DM (1996) The xid mutation diminishes memory B cell generation but does not affect somatic hypermutation and selection. J Immunol 157(8):3357–3365PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Krummel B, Strassburg A, Ernst M, Reiling N, Eker B, Rath H, Hoerster R, Wappler W, Glaewe A, Schoellhorn V et al (2010) Potential role for IL-2 ELISpot in differentiating recent and remote infection in tuberculosis contact tracing. PLoS One 5(7):e11670CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rohr LR, Layfield LJ, Wallin D, Hardy D (2001) A comparison of routine and rapid microwave tissue processing in a surgical pathology laboratory. Am J Clin Pathol 115:703–708CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Al-haddawi MH, Jasni S, Israf DA, Zamri-Saad M, Mutalib AR, Sheikh-Omar AR (2001) Ultrastructural pathology of nasal and tracheal mucosa of rabbits experimentally infected with Pasteurella multocida serotype D:1. Res Vet Sci 70:191–197CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chen Z, Zhuo F-L, Zhang S-J, Tian Y, Tian S, Zhang J-Z (2009) Modulation of tropoelastin and fibrillin-1 by infrared radiation in human skin in vivo. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 25:310–316CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chen S, Cheng A, Wanga M, Zhu D, Luo Q, Liu F, Chen X (2009) Immunohistochemical detection and localization of new type gosling viral enteritis virus in paraformaldehyde-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 130:226–235CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xiaoyi Wang
    • 1
  1. 1.Beijing Institute of Microbiology and EpidemiologyBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations