Animal Probes and ZOO-FISH

  • Fengtang YangEmail author
  • Alexander S. Graphodatsky
Part of the Springer Protocols Handbooks book series (SPH)


The invention of cross-species chromosome painting (Zoo-FISH) represents the most significant technical breakthrough in animal cytogenetics after the introduction of chromosomal banding techniques in late 1960 and the early 1970s. This made it possible to compare the karyotypes of virtually any two vertebrate species that diverged up to 100 million years ago. With the availability of paint probes for more and more vertebrate species, Zoo-FISH has made a far-reaching impact on animal comparative cytogenetics, leading to the birth of the new cytogenetics—cytogenomics. Here we present two detailed protocols for cross-species chromosome painting.


Cross species Chromosome painting Zoo-FISH Cytogenetics Evolution Animal probes Mammalia Insects Fishes Reptiles Amphibia 



The development of these protocols has been relying on the continuous efforts of our colleagues, graduate students, and collaborators. We are particularly grateful to Malcolm A. Ferguson-Smith and Nigel P. Carter who introduced us to the field of chromosome painting in the early 1990s. We thank Patricia CM O’Brien for a critical reading of the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Wellcome Trust Sanger InstituteHinxton, CambridgeUK
  2. 2.Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Russian Academy of SciencesNovosibirskRussia

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