The Isolation and Analysis of Phenol-Soluble Modulins of Staphylococcus epidermidis
Phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs) are multifunctional peptide toxins produced by many staphylococcal strains. PSMs have received much recent attention, owing to multiple reports underscoring their importance for staphylococcal pathogenesis. Members of the PSM family may be strongly cytolytic to neutrophils and other cell types; promote inflammatory, receptor-mediated responses in several human cell types; and contribute to biofilm structuring and detachment. Here we describe biochemical methods to isolate, purify, and quantitatively analyze Staphylococcus epidermidis PSMs.
Key wordsStaphylococcus epidermidis Phenol-soluble modulins Peptide toxin Liquid chromatography Mass spectrometry
This work was supported by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health.