The Isolation and Analysis of Phenol-Soluble Modulins of Staphylococcus epidermidis

  • Hwang-Soo Joo
  • Michael Otto
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1106)


Phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs) are multifunctional peptide toxins produced by many staphylococcal strains. PSMs have received much recent attention, owing to multiple reports underscoring their importance for staphylococcal pathogenesis. Members of the PSM family may be strongly cytolytic to neutrophils and other cell types; promote inflammatory, receptor-mediated responses in several human cell types; and contribute to biofilm structuring and detachment. Here we describe biochemical methods to isolate, purify, and quantitatively analyze Staphylococcus epidermidis PSMs.

Key words

Staphylococcus epidermidis Phenol-soluble modulins Peptide toxin Liquid chromatography Mass spectrometry 



This work was supported by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hwang-Soo Joo
    • 1
  • Michael Otto
    • 1
  1. 1.Pathogen Molecular Genetics Section, Laboratory of Human Bacterial PathogenesisNational Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, U.S. National Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA

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