Microglia pp 185-197 | Cite as

Studying M1 and M2 States in Adult Microglia

  • Sadanand M. Gaikwad
  • Michael T. Heneka
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1041)


Microglial cell function receives increasing interest. To date, the majority of experiments are performed by using immortalized microglia-like cells or primary microglia prepared from pre- or postnatal rodent brain. As those may not adequately reflect the microglial biology in the adult brain, this protocol advocates a procedure which allows for the isolation, purification, and subsequent analysis of microglial cells. Once isolated, the principal state of activation, M1 or M2, can be determined in adult microglia using fluorescence-activated cell sorting, quantitative PCR, and/or Western blotting. Likewise, adult microglia generated by this protocol can be used for functional analysis through cell cultivation for a limited time.

Key words

Adult microglia M1/M2 phenotype Neurodegeneration Cytokine Inflammatory gene Alzheimer Neuroinflammation 



This work was supported by a grant of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft to MTH (KFO177, TP8) and of the EU-FP7 program on neuroinflammation (INMIND).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sadanand M. Gaikwad
    • 1
  • Michael T. Heneka
    • 2
  1. 1.University of BonnBonnGermany
  2. 2.Clinical Neuroscience Unit, Department of NeurologyUniversity of BonnBonnGermany

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