Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are both regulators and effectors of microglial activation, and assays of these oxidants can be used as a measure of acute and chronic activation of microglial cells. Here we describe quick methods to assess the production of superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide, and peroxynitrite by microglia.
Reactive oxygen species Reactive nitrogen species Superoxide Hydrogen peroxide Nitric oxide Peroxynitrite Phagocytic NADPH oxidase Inducible nitric oxide synthase 3-Nitrotyrosine
Nitric oxide synthase
Phagocytic NADPH oxidase
Reactive nitrogen species
Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species
Reactive oxygen species
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Springer Nature is developing a new tool to find and evaluate Protocols. Learn more
Relevant research in our laboratory has been funded by the Wellcome Trust (Grant RG50995).
Wyss-Coray T (2006) Inflammation in Alzheimer disease: driving force, bystander or beneficial response? Nat Med 12:1005–1015PubMedGoogle Scholar
Ransohoff RM, Perry VH (2009) Microglial physiology: unique stimuli, specialized responses. Annu Rev Immunol 27:119–145PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Colton CA, Gilbert DL (1987) Production of superoxide anions by a CNS macrophage, the microglia. FEBS Lett 223:284–288PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jekabsone A, Mander P, Tickler A et al (2006) Fibrillar beta-amyloid peptide Abeta1-40 activates microglial proliferation via stimulating TNF-alpha release and H2O2 derived from NADPH oxidase: a cell culture study. J Neuroinflammation 3:24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bal-Price A, Matthias A, Brown GC (2002) Stimulation of the NADPH oxidase in activated rat microglia removes nitric oxide but induces peroxynitrite production. J Neurochem 80:73–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mander P, Brown GC (2005) Activation of microglial NADPH oxidase is synergistic with glial iNOS expression in inducing neuronal death: a dual-key mechanism of inflammatory neurodegeneration. J Neuroinflammation 2:20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jekabsone A, Neher J, Borutaite V et al (2007) Nitric oxide from neuronal nitric oxide synthase sensitises neurons to hypoxia-induced death via competitive inhibition of cytochrome oxidase. J Neurochem 103:346–356PubMedGoogle Scholar