Antibodies in Transplantation: The Effects of HLA and Non-HLA Antibody Binding and Mechanisms of Injury

  • Nicole M. Valenzuela
  • Elaine F. Reed
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 1034)


Until recently, allograft rejection was thought to be mediated primarily by alloreactive T cells. Consequently, immunosuppressive approaches focused on inhibition of T cell activation. While short-term graft survival has significantly improved and rejection rates have dropped, acute rejection has not been eliminated and chronic rejection remains the major threat to long-term graft survival. Increased attention to humoral immunity in experimental systems and in the clinic has revealed that donor specific antibodies (DSA) can mediate and promote acute and chronic rejection. Herein, we detail the effects of alloantibody, particularly HLA antibody, binding to graft vascular and other cells, and briefly summarize the experimental methods used to assess such outcomes.

Key words

HLA antibodies Non-HLA antibodies Donor specific antibodies Endothelial cell ­antibodies Endothelial cell activation Vascular injury 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nicole M. Valenzuela
    • 1
  • Elaine F. Reed
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, UCLA Immunogenetics Center, David Geffen School of MedicineUniversity of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

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