Advertisement

Haemostasis pp 181-192 | Cite as

Fibrinogen

  • Linda J. Stang
  • Lesley G. Mitchell
Protocol
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 992)

Abstract

Fibrinogen is the final essential building block of the clotting process. Thus, all of the preliminary “cause and effect” events in the clotting cascade rely on the work of this molecule to measure their success. The most commonly used laboratory method for measuring fibrinogen is the Clauss fibrinogen assay. The Clauss fibrinogen assay is a quantitative, clot-based, functional assay. The assay measures the ability of fibrinogen to form fibrin clot after being exposed to a high concentration of purified thrombin. Plasma samples are pre-diluted which minimize assay interference from substances like heparin and fibrinogen degradation products. In brief, the diluted plasma is incubated at 37°C prior to the addition of the pre-warmed (37°C) thrombin reagent. From the exact moment of the addition of thrombin, the time to clot is measured. The clotting time in seconds is interpolated from a standard curve made using various dilutions of assayed standard plasma. The following chapter includes detailed information on the Clauss fibrinogen assay. Other fibrinogen assays used include fibrinogen levels derived from prothrombin time assays and antigenic methods. Fibrinogen measurements using the prothrombin time and antigenic based assays are described in brief.

Key words

Fibrinogen Thrombin reagent Clauss method Standard curve Alert value Hypofibrinogenemia 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Funding support was from the Canadian Institute of Health Research (L Mitchell Grant#114981).

References

  1. 1.
    Owen CA Jr (2001) Fibrinogen. In: Wl N, Bowie EJW (eds) A history of blood coagulation. Rochester, Minnesota, pp 19–26Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    vanCreveld S, Verder HA, Pascha CN, Kroeze WF (1959) The separation of AHF from fibrinogen. Thromb Diath Haemorrh 3:572–577Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ware AG, Guest MM, Seegers WH (1947) Fibrinogen, with special reference to its preparation and certain properties of the product. Arch Biochem 13:231–236PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Brown BA (1980) Coagulation. Hematology. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, pp 115–150.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Nieuwenhuizen W, Mossesson MW, De Maat MPM (2001) Fibrinogen: XVIth International Fibrinogen Workshop. Ann NY Acad Sci 645.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gladner JA (1968) The action of fibrinogen. In: Laki K (ed) Marcel Dekker, Fibrinogen, pp 87–115Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sturge J, Carey N, Davies AH, Powell JT (2001) Fibrin monomer and fibrinopeptide B act additively to increase DNA synthesis in smooth muscle cells cultured from human saphenous vein. J Vasc Siurg 33:847–853PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Owen CA Jr (2001) Inherited coagulation factor deficiencies. A history of blood coagulation. Rochester, Minnesota, p 127Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Brown BA (1980) Diseases. Hematology. p 256.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Haverkate F, Samama M (1995) Familial dysfibrinogenemia and thrombophilia. Report on a study of the SSC subcommittee on fibrinogen. Thromb Haemost 73:151–161PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mackie IJ, Kitchen S, Machin SJ, Lowe GD (2003) Guidelines on fibrinogen assays. Br J Haematol 121:396–404PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hoots WK, Carrell NA, Wagner RH, Cooper HA, McDonagh J (1981) A naturally occurring antibody that inhibits fibrin polymerization. N Engl J Med 304:857–861PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Marciniak E, Greenwood MF (1979) Acquired coagulation inhibitor delaying fibrinopeptide release. Blood 53:81–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rosenberg RD, Colman RW, Lorand L (1974) A new haemorrhagic disorder with defective fibrin stabilization and cryofibrinogenaemia. Br J Haematol 26:269–284PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    de Vries A, Rosenberg T, Kochwa S, Boss JH (1961) AM J Med 30:486–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lowe GD, Rumley A (1999) Use of fibrinogen and fibrin D-dimer in prediction of arterial thrombotic events. Thromb Haemost 82:667–672PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Procedure for the determination of fibrinogen in plasma; approved guideline. 2nd edn. CLSI(NCCLS). 21(18):H30–A2Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Clauss A (1957) Rapid physiological coagulation method in determination of fibrinogen. Acta Haematol 17:237–246PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Laffen M, Manning R (2006) Investigation of haemostasis. In: Lewis SM, Bain BJ, Bates I (eds) Practical hematology. Elsevier, Philadelphia, pp 401–422Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ludlam CA, Bennett B, Fox KA, Lowe GD, Reid AW (1995) Guidelines for the use of thrombolytic therapy. Haemostasis and thrombosis task force of the British Committee for standards in haematology. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 6:273–285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gosselin RC, King JH, Janatpur KA et al (2004) Effects of pentasaccharide (fondaparinux) and direct thrombin inhibitors on coagulation testing. Arch Pathol Lab Med 128:1142–1145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lowe GD, Rumley A, Mackie IJ (2004) Plasma fibrinogen. Ann Clin Biochem 41:430–440PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Linda J. Stang
    • 1
  • Lesley G. Mitchell
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Laboratory Medicine and PathologyUniversity of Alberta HospitalEdmontonCanada
  2. 2.Hematology/Oncology, Department of PediatricsUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada

Personalised recommendations