Detection of DNA Fragmentation in Retinal Apoptosis by TUNEL

  • Francesca Doonan
  • Thomas G. CotterEmail author
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 935)


Terminal dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) is an invaluable technique used in the study of late-stage apoptosis. The technique is based upon detection of fragmented DNA, a well-recognized characteristic of apoptosis, usually with fluorescent markers. Here, we describe the TUNEL technique (1) employing two different detection techniques, fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (2) which can be applied to the analysis of apoptosis in retinal tissues or retinal cell cultures, respectively.

Key words

Retina TUNEL Fluorescence microscopy Flow cytometry Tissue Adherent cell 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Tumour Biology Laboratory, Biochemistry Department, Bioscience Research InstituteUniversity College CorkCorkIreland

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