Micropropagation of African Violet (Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl.)
Micropropagation is an important tool for rapid multiplication and the creation of genetic variability in African violets (Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl.). Successful in vitro propagation depends on the specific requirements and precise manipulation of various factors such as the type of explants used, physiological state of the mother plant, plant growth regulators in the culture medium, and growth conditions. Development of cost-effective protocols with a high rate of multiplication is a crucial requirement for commercial application of micropropagation. The current chapter describes an optimized protocol for micropropagation of African violets using leaf explants obtained from in vitro grown plants. In this process, plant regeneration occurs via both somatic embryogenesis and shoot organogenesis simultaneously in the explants induced with the growth regulator thidiazuron (TDZ; N-phenyl-N′-1,2,3-thidiazol-5-ylurea). The protocol is simple, rapid, and efficient for large-scale propagation of African violet and the dual routes of regeneration allow for multiple applications of the technology from simple clonal propagation to induction or selection of variants to the production of synthetic seeds.
Key wordsAfrican violet Saintpaulia ionantha Micropropagation Somatic embryogenesis Organogenesis Regeneration Root initiation Thidiazuron
This research was supported by grants from the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Council of Canada.
- 1.Al-Hussein S, Shibli RA, Karam NS (2006) Regeneration in African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl.) using different leaf explants, cytokinins sources, and light regimes. Jordan J Agric Sci 2:361–371Google Scholar
- 2.Bilkey PC, Cocking EC (1981) Increased plant vigor by in vitro propagation of Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl. from sub-epidermal tissue. HortScience 16:643–644Google Scholar
- 5.Start ND, Cumming BG (1976) In vitro propagation of Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl. HortScience 11:204–206Google Scholar
- 6.Vazquez AM, Davey MR, Short KC (1977) Organogenesis in cultures of Saintpaulia ionantha. Acta Hortic 78:249–259Google Scholar
- 8.Murch SJ, Victor JMR, Saxena PK (2003) Auxin, calcium and sodium in somatic embryogenesis of African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl. Cv. Benjamin). Acta Hortic 625:201–209Google Scholar
- 10.Taha RM, Daud N, Hasbullah NA (2010) Establishment of efficient regeneration system, acclimatization and somaclonal variation in Saintpaulia ionantha H. Wendl. Acta Hortic 865:115–121Google Scholar
- 13.Khan S, Naseeb S, Ali K (2007) Callus induction, plant regeneration and acclimatization of African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha) using leaves as explants. Pak J Bot 39:1263–1268Google Scholar
- 14.Shajiee K, Tehranifar A, Naderi R, Khalighi A (2006) Somaclonal variation induced de novo leaf chimeric mutants during in vitro propagation of African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl.). Acta Hortic 725:337–340Google Scholar
- 15.Fiola JA, Hassan MA, Swartz HJ, Bors RH, McNicols R (1990) Effects of thidiazuron, light influence rates and kanamycin on in vitro shoot organogenesis from excised Rubus cotyledons and leaves. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 20:223–228Google Scholar
- 20.Sheibani M, Nemati SH, Davarinejad GH, Azghandi AV, Habashi AA (2007) Induction of somatic embryogenesis in saffron using thidiazuron (TDZ). Acta Hortic 739:259–268Google Scholar