Psychoneuroimmunology pp 145-164

Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 934)

Exploring the Diagnostic Potential of Immune Biomarker Coexpression in Gulf War Illness

  • Gordon Broderick
  • Mary Ann Fletcher
  • Michael Gallagher
  • Zachary Barnes
  • Suzanne D. Vernon
  • Nancy G. Klimas

Abstract

Complex disorders like Gulf War Illness (GWI) often defy diagnosis on the basis of a single biomarker and may only be distinguishable by considering the coexpression of multiple markers measured in response to a challenge. We demonstrate the practical application of such an approach using an example where blood was collected from 26 GWI, 13 healthy control subjects, and 9 unhealthy controls with Chronic Fatigue at three points during a graded exercise challenge. A 3-way multivariate projection model based on 12 markers of endocrine and immune function was constructed using a training set of n = 10 GWI and n = 11 healthy controls. These groups were separated almost completely on the basis of two coexpression patterns. In a separate test set these same features allowed for discrimination of new GWI subjects (n = 16) from unhealthy (n = 9) and healthy control subjects with a sensitivity of 70% and a specificity of 90%.

Key words

Cytokine profile Coexpression patterns Exercise response Gulf War Illness Regression model Diagnostic classification Partial least squares Batch partial least squares 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gordon Broderick
    • 1
  • Mary Ann Fletcher
    • 2
    • 3
  • Michael Gallagher
    • 4
  • Zachary Barnes
    • 2
  • Suzanne D. Vernon
    • 5
  • Nancy G. Klimas
    • 3
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary MedicineUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada
  2. 2.Department of MedicineUniversity of MiamiMiamiUSA
  3. 3.Miami Veterans Affairs Medical CenterMiamiUSA
  4. 4.Department of Family MedicineUniversity of CalgaryCalgaryCanada
  5. 5.The CFIDS Association of AmericaCharlotteUSA
  6. 6.Institute for Neuro-immune MedicineNova Southeastern UniversityFt. LauderdaleUSA

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