Visualization and Analysis of Vascular Receptors Using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy and Fluorescent Ligands

  • Craig J. Daly
  • Ingela Parmryd
  • John C. McGrath
Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology book series (MIMB, volume 897)


The use of fluorescent ligands to analyze receptor distribution is increasing in popularity. This is due to the ever growing number of fluorescent ligands and the increased sensitivity of microscope-based technologies. Image-analysis methods have advanced to a stage where quantification of fluorescent signals is relatively simple (if used appropriately). In this chapter we describe a method of analyzing the 2D and 3D distribution of fluorescent ligands in segments of blood vessels. In addition, we introduce the issues surrounding the accurate analysis of colocalization of two different fluorescent ligands.

Key words

Image analysis Fluorescent ligands Blood vessels Colocalization Adrenoceptors Cannabinoid receptors 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Craig J. Daly
    • 1
  • Ingela Parmryd
    • 2
  • John C. McGrath
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Medical, Veterinary & Life Sciences, School of Life SciencesUniversity of GlasgowGlasgowUK
  2. 2.Department of Medical Cell BiologyUppsala UniversityUppsalaSweden

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